Open Access

Evaluation of lock-out submarine “Deep Diver” for in situ biological work in boreal waters

  • R. A. Cooper1 and
  • D. J. Scarratt2
Helgoländer wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen24:BF01609501


1. Six scientists and technicians were trained in lock-out diving from the submersible “Deep Diver”.

2. A planned program of saturation diving on predetermined sites in depths between 150 and 250 feet (46 and 76 m) was only partially successful because of extreme cold experienced by divers breathing heliox mixtures in 3.5° C water, and because of inadequacies in the submarine handling system.

3. An alternate system of bounce lock-out dives permitted completion of an abbreviated scientific program in depths down to 287 ft (87.5 m).

4. Divers took photographs, rock and sediment core samples, and made collections of common benthic species for subsequent analysis for environmental contaminants.

5. It was effectively proved that diver scientists can train rapidly for lock-out diving programs and perform effective scientific work.