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Helgoland Marine Research

Open Access

Tolerances and requirements of embryos and larvae of bivalve molluscs

  • A. Calabrese1 and
  • H. C. Davis1
Helgoländer wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen20:BF01609928


1. Techniques are discussed for obtaining bivalve embryos and larvae throughout the year by inducing gonad development in adults during winter and spring and retarding spawning until late fall and early winter.

2. Development of routine methods for rearing larvae is described and data are presented on the food, temperature, salinity, and pH requirements and on the effect of different combinations of these factors on survival and growth of larvae of several species of bivalves.

3. Some general conclusions are given on the effects of suspended materials, various pollutants, and toxicants on embryos and larvae.

4. Progress in the study of genetics of bivalves is reported.


Waste WaterWater ManagementWater PollutionBivalveRoutine Method