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Metabolic adaptation of animals from different lautitudes

Stoffwechseladaptation bei Tieren aus verschiedenen Breiten

Kurzfassung

In dem Maße, in welchem sich die Verbreitungsgrenzen von Populationen ausweiten, verursachen neue Umweltstresse selektive Beeinflussungen. Es ist daher durchaus denkbar, daß latitudinal getrenntlebende Tier-Populationen sich allmählich in ihren physiologischen Reaktionen zu unterscheiden beginnen. Für einschlägige Studien erwiesen sich Kurzschwanzkrebse der GattungUca als sehr geeignet, da die Artvertreter sowohl Affinitäten zur gemäßigten Zone als auch zu tropischen Gebieten besitzen und hinsichtlich ihrer Verbreitung eine Überlappungszone entlang der subtropischen Ostküste Zentral-Floridas (USA) besteht. Stoffwechselphysiologische Untersuchungen anUca-Populationen von New York, North Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico und Jamaika weisen darauf hin, daß tatsächlich eindeutige Unterschiede bestehen. Ganz allgemein reagieren Versuchstiere aus der gemäßigten Zone stoffwechselphysiologisch labiler, während tropische Arten stenothermer sind. Die Untersuchungen wurden durchgeführt über einen Bereich verschiedener konstanter Temperaturen, und zwar sowohl an adulten Tieren und Larven als auch an verschiedenen Geweben (Herz, Muskel, Gehirn, Kieme und Mitteldarmdrüse). Die Beziehungen stoffwechselphysiologischer Reaktionen, welche zwischen Ganztier und Gewebe einerseits und den verschiedenen ontogenetischen Stadien andererseits gefunden wurden, erlauben einige Generalisierungen. Das Akklimatisationsmuster ist nicht bei allen Lebenszyklusstadien dasselbe. Die Gewebe zeigen nicht die gleichen stoffwechselphysiologischen Reaktionen wie das Ganztier. Eine uniforme Beziehung zwischen latitudinaler Verbreitung aller Arten oder Populationen und ihren Reaktionen ist nicht evident.

Summary

1. The present paper reviews certain quantitative aspects of the physiological characteristics of animal populations from different latitudes. Special emphasis is placed on decapod crustaceans of the genusUca, the fiddler crabs.

2. Metabolic characteristics, determined over a graded temperature series and under different conditions of thermal acclimation, are given for larvae and adults of tropical and temperate zone species. Patterns of thermal acclimation according to Prosser's system may be different for each stage of development. No consistent pattern appears to be typical of either tropical or temperate zone species or for different latitudinally separated populations of the same species.

3. The patterns of metabolic-temperature response of various tissues (“brain”, muscle, gill, heart, and mid-gut gland) are not all the same as the response of the whole organism.

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Supported by a number of grants from the National Science Foundation. A travel grant (GB-1444) from the NSF enabled this paper to be presented at theFirst International Symposium on Problems of Quantitative Biology of Metabolism, Helgoland, Germany.

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Vernberg, F.J., Vernberg, W.B. Metabolic adaptation of animals from different lautitudes. Helgolander Wiss. Meeresunters 9, 476–487 (1964). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01610059

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01610059

Keywords

  • Waste Water
  • Physiological Characteristic
  • Consistent Pattern
  • Animal Population
  • Temperature Series