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Helgoland Marine Research

Open Access

Monster zooids inCryptosula pallasiana (bryozoa, cheilostomata ascophora)

  • D. Jebram1
Helgoländer wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen29:BF01614273


In the ascophoran bryozoanCryptosula pallasiana (Moll) many examples of regenerative growth and of “abnormal” zooids have been observed. Most of the different forms of “monsters” are caused by fusion of zooids or zooid buds respectively. Zooids may often fuse laterally but in a few cases also distally. Some “monster zooids” have two polypides and “combined opercula” caused by various degrees of fusion of the apertures. Lack of sufficient space may lead to the formation of “dwarf zooids” or “remainder cystids”.


Waste WaterWater ManagementWater PollutionRegenerative GrowthSufficient Space