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Helgoland Marine Research

Open Access

Planulae brooding and acquisition of zooxanthellae inXenia macrospiculata (Cnidaria: Octocorallia)

  • Y. Achituv1,
  • Y. Benayahu2 and
  • J. Hanania3
Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen46:BF02367101


Brooding in the octocoralXenia macrospiculata is described. Young planulae ofX. macrospiculata were found in brooding pouches located below the anthocodia among the polyps’ cavities. These cavities are connected by and lined with ectoderm. Detached zooxanthellae were present within the brooding pouches, and are most probably acquired later by the planulae. The zooxanthellae enter into ectodermal ameboid cells by phagocytosis, and are then transferred to the endoderm.


Waste WaterWater ManagementWater PollutionBrooding PouchAmeboid Cell