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Helgoland Marine Research

Open Access

Progress in management of coastal ecosystems

  • J. Clark1
Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen33:BF02414792


The process of coastal zone management in the United States has progressed to the point that it is now possible to embrace whole coastal ecosystems in management programs. The structural and dynamical features of the ecosystems have to be known before management can succeed. Furthermore, it is necessary to disaggregate the systems into subsystems. The following six subsystems have been used as the best compromise between scientific and administrative needs: the watershed terrain, the land drainage system, the coastal basin, the basin floor, the coastal waters, and the ocean. The Apalachicola National Estuarine Sanctuary in Florida is used as a case history of a managed ecosystem.