Skip to main content

Table 1 Analyses of variance on total abundance (N), diversity indices (S, N1, N10) and abundance of 36 selected species, in relation to habitats (2 levels, fixed), areas (4 levels, nested in habitat) and sites (5 levels, nested in area and habitat)

From: Anthropogenic disturbance and spatial heterogeneity of macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages in coastal lagoons: the study case of Pialassa Baiona (northern Adriatic Sea)

  Source of variation Habitat (1 df) Area (Habitat) (6 df) Site (Area (Habitat)) (32 df) Residual (40 df)
  Transf. Cochran’s C MS F P MS F P MS F P MS
S None ns 208.0125 1.12 0.3310 ns 185.9792 6.02 0.0003*** 30.9063 3.45 0.0001*** 8.9625
N1 None P < 0.01 3.7761 0.55 0.4859 ns 6.8534 1.48 0.2171 ns 4.6268 1.72 0.0524 ns 2.6679
N10 Sqrt (X + 1) ns 0.0007 0.07 0.7960 ns 0.0098 2.52 0.0413* 0.0039 2.11 0.0127* 0.0018
Abra segmentum Sqrt (X + 1) ns 30.2879 1.52 0.2642 ns 19.9723 2.18 0.0705 ns 9.1427 12.17 0.0000*** 0.7512
Actiniaria indet. Ln (X + 0.1) ns 33.4306 1.05 0.3440 ns 31.6899 5.35 0.0006*** 5.9257 3.38 0.0002*** 1.7551
Amphipholis squamata Ln (X + 0.001) ns 148.9852 1.94 0.2128 ns 76.6884 3.9 0.0050** 19.6873 2.96 0.0006*** 6.6426
Brania sp. Ln (X + 0.01) ns 0.5329 0.03 0.8773 ns 20.5307 2.54 0.0398* 8.0786 2.68 0.0017** 3.0155
Capitella capitata Sqrt (X + 1) ns 6.0392 0.41 0.5452 ns 14.6999 2.42 0.0482* 6.0679 1.96 0.0218* 3.0892
Cerastoderma glaucum Ln (X + 1) ns 0.1080 0.40 0.5496 nsa 0.2689 0.53 0.7841 ns 0.5109 2.51 0.0032** 0.2039
Chironomus salinarius Sqrt (X + 1) ns 24.1505 0.89 0.3823 ns 27.182 3.65 0.0071** 7.4459 15.18 0.0000*** 0.4906
Cirriformia tentaculata X^0.1 ns 0.4247 0.58 0.4766 ns 0.7372 1.74 0.1447 ns 0.4247 3.43 0.0001** 0.1240
Cirrophorus furcatus X^0.01 ns 0.8165 2.22 0.1869 ns 0.368 4.01 0.0042** 0.0917 1.2 0.2862 ns 0.0761
Corophium insidiosum Ln (X + 1) P < 0.05 39.0638 4.51 0.0779 ns 8.6634 1.62 0.1741 ns 5.3510 8.05 0.0000** 0.6648
Corophium acherusicum Ln (X + 0.1) ns 75.8199 3.56 0.108 ns 21.2817 3.96 0.0045** 5.3706 6.5 0.0000** 0.8267
Cyathura carinata Ln (X + 0.1) ns 2.302 0.14 0.7224 ns 16.6009 2.63 0.0343* 6.3006 4.48 0.0000*** 1.4073
Cyclope neritea None ns 63.0125 1.19 0.3164 ns 52.7625 9.41 0.0000*** 5.6063 3.65 0.0001*** 1.5375
Desdemona ornata Ln (X + 0.0001) ns 10.4866 0.14 0.7183 ns 73.3367 4.18 0.0033** 17.5615 1.78 0.0419* 9.8556
Gammarus aequicauda Ln (X + 1) ns 13.4917 0.63 0.4588 ns 21.5387 5.95 0.0003*** 3.6222 8.04 0.0000*** 0.4504
Hediste diversicolor None ns 9.8000 2.97 0.1356 ns 3.3000 1.27 0.3004 nsa 2.6063 1.24 0.2566 ns 2.1000
Hydrobia cfr. ventrosa None ns 207570.31250 8.09 0.0294* 25656.4958 1.86 0.1189 ns 13803.3188 8.25 0.0000*** 1672.2875
Hydroides dianthus Ln (X + 0.001) ns 0.9514 0.02 0.8835 ns 40.7147 2.33 0.0557 ns 17.4634 2.95 0.0007*** 5.9139
Idotea balthica Ln (X + 1) ns 1.1864 0.17 0.6961 ns 7.0589 3.3 0.0122* 2.1415 2.83 0.0010** 0.7576
Malacoceros cfr. fuliginosus Sqrt (X + 1) ns 21.5628 4.34 0.0823 ns 4.9657 0.98 0.4566 ns 5.082 12.4 0.0000*** 0.4097
    Pooling 4.26 0.0459* 5.0637 12.36      
Marphysa sanguinea Ln (X + 1) ns 2.7682 2.59 0.1583ns 1.0668 2.01 0.0940 ns 0.5319 6.18 0.0000*** 0.0861
Melita palmata Ln (X + 1) ns 17.0318 6.48 0.0438* 2.6300 3.66 0.0070** 0.7180 2.44 0.0040** 0.2945
Microdeutopus gryllotalpa Ln (X + 1) ns 0.0100 0.00 0.9775 ns 11.6349 3.47 0.0093** 3.3519 4.83 0.0000*** 0.6936
Musculista senhousia Ln (X + 0.1) ns 1.6531 0.06 0.8194 ns 29.0466 7.71 0.0000*** 3.7665 3.58 0.0001*** 1.0519
Mytilus galloprovincialis Ln (X + 0.1) ns 19.6285 5.07 0.0653 ns 3.8699 1.03 0.4234 ns 3.7528 2.46 0.0037** 1.5267
    Pooling 5.20 0.0282* 3.7713 2.4702      
Neanthes succinea Sqrt (X + 1) ns 1.2183 1.45 0.2734 nsa 0.8384 0.89 0.5127 ns 0.9403 8.23 0.0000*** 0.1142
Nebalia sp. Ln (X + 0.1) ns 0.2192 0.08 0.7929 ns 2.9097 1.57 0.1894 ns 1.8589 1.23 0.2626 ns 1.5071
Nematoda Ln (X + 1) ns 24.4264 1.56 0.2580 ns 15.6459 3.76 0.0061** 4.1655 3.61 0.0001*** 1.1526
Nemertina Ln (X + 1) ns 1.5073 0.42 0.5428 ns 3.6239 2.29 0.0596 ns 1.5826 2.73 0.0014** 0.5787
Polydora ciliata None ns 2101.2500 0.17 0.6954 nsa 12440.0833 0.86 0.5363 ns 14509.1938 28.65 0.0000*** 506.3500
Sabellaria alcocki Ln (X + 0.01) P < 0.05 0.8416 3.09 0.1292 ns 0.2723 1.90 0.1122 ns 0.1437 2.81 0.0011* 0.0511
Streblospio shrubsolii Ln (X + 0.01) ns 66.7832 3.75 0.1008 ns 17.7898 1.17 0.3452 ns 15.1688 2.95 0.0007*** 5.1469
    Pooling 4.29 0.0453* 15.5826 3.0276      
Tanais dulongii Ln (X + 0.001) P < 0.05 77.1643 1.78 0.2303 ns 43.3036 3.02 0.0187 ns 14.3307 4.77 0.0000** 3.0058
Ruditapes philippinarum Ln (X + 1) ns 3.5934 2.97 0.1358 ns 1.2112 2.31 0.0574 ns 0.5236 4.36 0.0000*** 0.1201
Trypanosyllis zebra Ln (X + 0.0001) ns 15.1364 0.72 0.4281 nsa 20.9672 0.71 0.6436 ns 29.5097 4.83 0.0000*** 6.1075
Tubificidae None ns 20320.3125 0.82 0.4011 ns 24898.2792 2.12 0.0783 ns 11749.7625 2.89 0.0008*** 4071.6875
  1. Significant levels were indicated by the following symbols: ns = not significant; * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001. When variances were slightly heterogeneous (Cochran’s C test: 0.01 < P < 0.05) even after transformation, the significant level was reduced to P < 0.01 (* P < 0.01; ** P < 0.001)
  2. aNot significant also after pooling of nested factors