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Fig. 1 | Helgoland Marine Research

Fig. 1

From: Increasing species richness of the macrozoobenthic fauna on tidal flats of the Wadden Sea by local range expansion and invasion of exotic species

Fig. 1

Long-time (1970–2009) series of data on: a Annual means of water temperatures in the main tidal inlet of the western Wadden Sea, for (solid points) the entire year and (open points) the 3-month winter periods Dec/Jan/Feb. b Numbers N of species (among a list of 50 easily recognizable macrozoobenthic species) found in late-winter/early-spring in: (solid points) all samples together (15 sites × 0.95 m2) and (open points, with 1 standard error, n = 15) mean number per sampling site. c Numbers as in b, but separately for samplings following a very cold winter (open points) or (solid points) a normal or mild winter. The plus and multi points refer to 1991, when the area was devoid of mussel beds. d Numbers as in c, but corrected for the influence of temperature of the preceding winter (see text). Best linear fits are as follows: (b, solid points: 14.25 m2) N = −385 + 0.21 year (r = 0.62, n = 40, P < 0.0001), (b, open points: 0.95 m2) N = −251 + 0.13 year (r = 0.73, n = 40, P < 0.0001), (d, solid points, full line: 14.25 m2) N = −215 + 0.124 year (r = 0.50, n = 38, P = 0.001), (d, open points, dashed line: 0.95 m2) N = −162 + 0.089 year (r = 0.72, n = 38, P < 0.0001)

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