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Table 1 Studies showing examples of increasing habitat complexity generated by different ecosystem engineers and the response of the associated communities

From: Habitat complexity and community composition: relationships between different ecosystem engineers and the associated macroinvertebrate assemblages

Engineered habitats compared System examined SP De Di Source
More complex Less complex
Seagrasses (Halophila ovalis and Zostera capricorni) Alga (Caulerpa taxifolia) Soft-sediment intertidal macrofauna + 0 Na McKinnon et al. 2009
Fucus vesiculosus Barnacle Rocky shore macrofauna + Na Thompson et al. 1996
Rough and bushy artificial kelp Smooth artificial kelp Subtidal macrofauna + + Na Christie et al. 2007
Filamentous artificial alga Foliose artificial alga Subtidal macrofauna + + Na Edgar and Klumpp 2003
Macrophyte (Najas microcarpa, Utricularia foliosa, Egeria najas, Cabomba frucata and Eichhornia azurea) Macrophyte (Nymphaea amazonum) Floodplain lagoon macrofauna + + Na Thomaz et al. 2008
Algae (Cystoseira barbatula, Cystoseira spinosa, Sargassum vulgare, Halopteris scoparia) Algae (Dictyota fasciola and Dictyota dichotoma) Subtidal molluscan assemblages + + + Chemello and Milazzo 2002
Algae (Ceramium nodulosum and Cladophora rupestris) Algae (Corallina officinalis and Chondrus crispus) Rocky pool ostracod assemblages + + + Hull 1997
Bryozoan (Watersipora subtorquata) Sea squirt (Ascidia ceratodes) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) Subtidal mobile epifauna + 0 + Sellheim et al. 2010
Halophyte (Phragmites australis) Halophyte (Spartina alterniflora) Brackish marsh macrofauna + + Na Angradi et al. 2001
Alga (Codium fragile spp. tomentosoides) Algae (Laminaria longicruris and Laminaria digitata) Rocky subtidal epifaunal assemblages + 0 + Schmidt and Scheibling 2006
Monolayer of mussel (Perumytilus purpuratus) Multilayer of mussel (P. purpuratus) Rocky shore macrofauna 0 0 Na Prado and Castilla 2006
Bryozoan (W. subtorquata) Sea squirt (A. ceratodes) and mussel (M. galloprovincialis) Subtidal sessile epifauna 0 0 0 Sellheim et al. 2010
Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Mussel (Mytilus edulis) Soft-sediment intertidal macrofauna 0 Na Kochmann et al. 2008
Macrophyte (Thalassia testudinum) Macrophyte (Halodule wrightii) Subtidal macrobenthic crustacean 0 0 Na Lewis 1984
Alga (Macrocystis pyrifera) Alga (Undaria pinnatifida) Subtidal macrofauna + + + Raffo et al. 2009
Hybrid halophyte (S. alterniflora x Spartina foliosa) Halophyte (S. foliosa) Marsh macrofauna 0 0 Brusati and Grosholz 2006
Mussel (M. galloprovincialis) Alga (Corallina) Seawall invertebrates and algae 0 Na Chapman et al. 2005
Mussel (P. purpuratus) Algae (C. officinalis var. chilenis, Gelidium chilense and Gastroclonium cylindricum) Rocky shore molluscan assemblages 0 0 Na Kelaher et al. 2007
Halophyte (Spartina anglica) Seagrass (Zostera noltii) Marsh macrofauna 0 + Bouma et al. 2009
Halophyte (S. anglica) Seagrass (Z. noltii) Coastal lagoon macrofauna 0 0 Na Cottet et al. 2007
More dense C. officinalis turf Less dense C. officinalis turf Rocky shore gastropod assemblages Na Kelaher 2003
Algae (Cladophora rupestris and Laminaria digitata) Alga (Fucus serratus) Rocky shore macrofauna Na + + Hooper and Davenport 2006
Alga (Sargassum globulariaefolium) Alga (Hormosira banksii) Rocky shore amphipods assemblages Na 0 Na Schreider et al. 2003
Tubeworm (Ficopomatus enigmaticus) Oyster (Ostrea conchaphila) Soft-sediment intertidal macrofauna Na + Na Heiman et al. 2008
  1. We classified the cases where habitat complexity was not measured, as more or less complex considering the density and/or diversity of structural elements. Responses are indicated in terms of positive (+), negative (−) or neutral (0) relationship between species richness (SP), density (De) or diversity (Di) in the more complex versus the less complex engineered habitat. Na not assessed in the study