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Table 4 Fatty acids (% of total FAC ± SD) of diets; “sat” = saturated fatty acids; “unsat” = unsaturated fatty acids; “PUFA” = poly unsaturated fatty acids; a = t-test identified a significant difference (P < 0.05) between freshwater (Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and marine diets (Pellets, Clupea harengus, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba)

From: Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

  Rutilus rutilus (N = 4) Chironomidae larvae (N = 4) Gammarus pulex (N = 4) Pellets (N = 4) Clupea harengus (N = 4) Crangon crangon (N = 4) Mysis spec. (N = 4) Euphausia superba (N = 4)
16:0 29.36 ± 3.40 26.78 ± 3.13 18.97 ± 1.87 20.82 ± 1.43 20.72 ± 4.03 25.29 ± 2.58 21.70 ± 1.72 22.87 ± 0.68
16:1 n7 1.84 ± 0.96 8.83 ± 2.58 2.94 ± 1.39 5.58 ± 0.46 2.82 ± 1.11 5.62 ± 2.19 5.13 ± 0.56 5.23 ± 0.35
16:2 n4 0.48 ± 0.29 0.78 ± 0.34 0.64 ± 0.14 0.67 ± 0.06 0.21 ± 0.12 0.47 ± 0.13 0.29 ± 0.03 0.65 ± 0.33
16:3 n4 0.11 ± 0.23 0.20 ± 0.08 0.33 ± 0.05 0.30 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.07 0.27 ± 0.22 0.07 ± 0.01 1.00 ± 0.10
17:0 0.96 ± 0.47 1.79 ± 0.20 1.53 ± 0.32 1.53 ± 0.03 0.66 ± 0.06 1.44 ± 0.18 1.06 ± 0.16 2.07 ± 0.12
17:1 n7 0.45 ± 0.43 0.95 ± 0.24 1.33 ± 0.74 1.09 ± 0.09 0.24 ± 0.08 0.83 ± 0.50 0.28 ± 0.09 0.85 ± 0.13
18:0a 14.79 ± 1.74 11.39 ± 0.82 8.13 ± 4.24 6.20 ± 0.84 5.66 ± 2.19 8.83 ± 5.46 3.70 ± 2.39 2.82 ± 0.29
18:1 n9a 18.07 ± 2.92 24.86 ± 2.41 30.30 ± 2.98 16.41 ± 0.43 11.25 ± 2.33 20.51 ± 1.82 12.87 ± 1.22 17.64 ± 1.60
18:1 n7 0.15 ± 0.05 0.53 ± 0.59 0.42 ± 0.13 0.18 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.06 0.23 ± 0.07 0.48 ± 0.04 0.17 ± 0.02
18:2 n6a 3.31 ± 0.45 13.15 ± 2.32 10.30 ± 1.29 4.96 ± 0.46 1.87 ± 0.44 1.79 ± 0.32 1.52 ± 0.23 2.08 ± 0.09
18:3 n6 0.11 ± 0.06 0.21 ± 0.09 0.23 ± 0.17 0.21 ± 0.02 0.06 ± 0.03 0.11 ± 0.05 0.14 ± 0.09 0.20 ± 0.01
18:3 n4a 0.29 ± 0.09 0.36 ± 0.06 0.44 ± 0.15 0.24 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.02 0.26 ± 0.14 0.14 ± 0.03 0.10 ± 0.02
18:3 n3 2.14 ± 0.97 0.75 ± 0.11 5.27 ± 2.36 0.92 ± 0.08 0.74 ± 0.32 1.22 ± 0.76 0.91 ± 0.17 2.27 ± 0.14
18:4 n3a 0.33 ± 0.23 0.10 ± 0.02 0.35 ± 0.15 2.03 ± 0.16 1.24 ± 0.65 0.16 ± 0.05 0.69 ± 0.13 4.71 ± 0.50
20:0a 0.62 ± 0.07 2.45 ± 0.82 0.85 ± 0.57 0.46 ± 0.05 0.49 ± 0.26 1.98 ± 1.08 0.37 ± 0.09 0.39 ± 0.16
20:1 n9a 0.64 ± 0.58 0.47 ± 0.18 0.94 ± 0.21 3.10 ± 0.08 7.46 ± 1.60 2.24 ± 1.43 1.21 ± 0.13 0.40 ± 0.21
20:2 n6 0.44 ± 0.06 0.01 ± 0.02 1.22 ± 0.18 0.24 ± 0.01 0.27 ± 0.10 0.65 ± 0.29 1.07 ± 0.17 0.10 ± 0.01
20:3 n6 0.76 ± 0.08 0.05 ± 0.10 0.55 ± 0.24 0.70 ± 0.00 0.18 ± 0.07 0.57 ± 0.12 0.22 ± 0.04 0.17 ± 0.02
20:4 n6 (ARA)a 4.45 ± 0.73 1.03 ± 0.31 2.87 ± 0.26 1.14 ± 0.03 0.84 ± 0.14 2.07 ± 0.56 1.72 ± 0.22 1.17 ± 0.03
21:0a 0.09 ± 0.03 0.04 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.07 0.07 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.02 0.03 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01
20:3 n3 0.67 ± 0.25 0.01 ± 0.02 0.73 ± 0.37 0.14 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.13 0.22 ± 0.11 0.72 ± 0.05 0.09 ± 0.02
20:4 n3 1.22 ± 0.21 0.25 ± 0.12 0.42 ± 0.10 1.17 ± 0.07 0.63 ± 0.17 0.54 ± 0.27 1.04 ± 0.21 0.71 ± 0.14
20:5 n3 (EPA)a 5.52 ± 1.80 4.67 ± 1.67 8.08 ± 3.05 13.46 ± 0.84 8.86 ± 0.78 13.76 ± 5.14 23.12 ± 1.53 19.48 ± 1.01
22:0a 0.11 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.03 0.18 ± 0.11 0.09 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.01 0.15 ± 0.07 0.05 ± 0.00 0.05 ± 0.01
22:1 n9 0.41 ± 0.45 0.22 ± 0.10 0.20 ± 0.11 1.84 ± 0.07 13.79 ± 3.13 0.28 ± 0.14 0.17 ± 0.04 0.09 ± 0.05
22:2 n6a 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.14 ± 0.09 0.71 ± 0.04 0.26 ± 0.14 0.20 ± 0.10 0.31 ± 0.07 0.88 ± 0.05
22:5 n3 (DPA) 1.64 ± 0.32 0.00 ± 0.00 0.57 ± 0.30 1.81 ± 0.08 0.78 ± 0.24 1.12 ± 0.41 0.65 ± 0.11 0.51 ± 0.05
22:6 n3 (DHA)a 11.05 ± 3.01 0.00 ± 0.00 1.95 ± 0.82 13.29 ± 0.71 19.46 ± 4.77 8.95 ± 2.84 19.94 ± 1.52 13.16 ± 1.08
24:0a 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.25 ± 0.04 0.21 ± 0.11 0.21 ± 0.30 0.23 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.05
24:1 n9a 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.39 ± 0.02 0.43 ± 0.15 0.00 ± 0.00 0.16 ± 0.04 0.04 ± 0.05
∑sata 45.98 ± 4.98 42.58 ± 4.06 29.92 ± 5.80 29.47 ± 2.37 28.05 ± 6.01 38.00 ± 6.50 27.25 ± 3.03 28.32 ± 0.91
∑1 unsat 21.55 ± 5.22 35.86 ± 1.66 36.12 ± 3.49 28.58 ± 0.37 36.21 ± 7.27 29.70 ± 3.31 20.30 ± 0.86 24.43 ± 1.73
∑2 unsata 4.23 ± 0.62 13.94 ± 2.64 12.31 ± 1.29 6.59 ± 0.53 2.61 ± 0.62 3.10 ± 0.37 3.20 ± 0.25 3.71 ± 0.27
∑3 unsat 4.08 ± 1.25 1.57 ± 0.20 7.55 ± 2.58 2.51 ± 0.10 1.51 ± 0.57 2.65 ± 0.99 2.19 ± 0.33 3.84 ± 0.23
∑4 + unsata 24.21 ± 5.73 6.05 ± 1.99 14.26 ± 4.27 32.89 ± 1.66 31.81 ± 3.90 26.61 ± 8.72 47.16 ± 2.75 39.74 ± 1.18
∑unsata 54.07 ± 5.01 57.42 ± 4.06 70.23 ± 5.64 70.57 ± 2.36 72.14 ± 5.92 62.06 ± 6.49 72.85 ± 3.05 71.73 ± 0.89
sat:unsata 0.86 ± 0.19 0.75 ± 0.12 0.43 ± 0.12 0.42 ± 0.05 0.40 ± 0.11 0.63 ± 0.17 0.38 ± 0.06 0.39 ± 0.02
∑n3a 22.57 ± 5.18 5.78 ± 1.69 17.38 ± 5.88 32.82 ± 1.71 31.88 ± 3.59 25.98 ± 7.95 47.07 ± 2.39 40.94 ± 1.26
∑n6a 9.06 ± 0.54 14.45 ± 2.72 15.32 ± 1.83 7.95 ± 0.52 3.49 ± 0.56 5.39 ± 0.62 4.99 ± 0.31 4.61 ± 0.12
n3:n6a 2.47 ± 0.43 0.39 ± 0.07 1.15 ± 0.42 4.13 ± 0.18 9.44 ± 2.54 4.77 ± 1.17 9.46 ± 0.57 8.89 ± 0.16
∑C16 PUFA 0.59 ± 0.52 0.98 ± 0.31 0.97 ± 0.19 0.97 ± 0.06 0.46 ± 0.16 0.74 ± 0.22 0.36 ± 0.03 1.65 ± 0.26
∑C18 PUFAa 6.18 ± 1.67 14.56 ± 2.45 16.59 ± 2.73 8.37 ± 0.66 4.02 ± 1.26 3.53 ± 1.04 3.39 ± 0.50 9.37 ± 0.67
∑C20 PUFAa 13.05 ± 2.73 6.03 ± 2.04 13.88 ± 3.49 16.84 ± 0.82 10.95 ± 0.99 17.82 ± 5.68 27.89 ± 1.67 21.73 ± 0.87
∑C22 PUFAa 12.69 ± 3.30 0.00 ± 0.00 2.67 ± 1.11 15.81 ± 0.81 20.50 ± 4.54 10.27 ± 3.30 20.91 ± 1.38 14.56 ± 1.09
∑PUFAa 32.51 ± 5.35 21.56 ± 4.61 34.11 ± 5.66 41.99 ± 2.15 35.93 ± 3.05 32.36 ± 8.32 52.55 ± 2.53 47.30 ± 1.41
EPA:ARAa 1.23 ± 0.29 4.44 ± 0.63 2.79 ± 0.87 11.84 ± 0.50 10.87 ± 2.93 6.74 ± 2.22 13.53 ± 1.02 16.66 ± 1.11
DHA:EPAa 2.06 ± 0.37 0.00 ± 0.00 0.25 ± 0.09 0.99 ± 0.04 2.23 ± 0.61 0.66 ± 0.06 0.86 ± 0.03 0.68 ± 0.08