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Table 2 Larval development of Lysmata species belonging to the “Long Branch Clade”; staging based on larval morphological characters of the three species studies

From: Shedding light on the larval genus Eretmocaris: morphological larval features of two closely related trans-isthmian Lysmata species (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) described on the basis of laboratory cultured material

Larval stage General morphological characters
First zoea Eyes fused; one pterigostomial spine followed by 4–6 marginal denticles; rostrum long, slender and pointed. Scaphocerite 5-segmented. Fifth pleomere with one pair of dorso-lateral spines. Pereiopods 1 and 5 as buds. Telson with 7+7 plumose setae
Second zoea Eyes stalked; antennal and supraorbital spines present; pterigostomial spine followed by marginal denticles; rostrum long and slender with one postrostral spine. Pereiopods 1 and 5 developed and functional. Telson with 8+8 plumose setae
Third zoea Antennular peduncle 2-segmented, inner and outer flagella present. Scaphocerite 4-segmented. Sixth pleomere separated from telson. Pereiopod 2 present as a biramous bud. Uropods present, with a rudimentary endopod
Fourth zoea Scaphocerite unsegmented. Pereiopod 2 functional. Uropods exopods as long as telson
Fifth zoea Biramous buds of pereiopods 3 and 4. Uropods exopods longer than telson margin. Telson narrower at his posterior end
Sixth zoea All pereiopods developed and functional. Pleopods present as small buds
Penultimate Zoea (Seventh or Eighth) Antennal flagellum as long as scaphocerite with 8 segments. Biramous pleopods with endopods as buds and exopods with apical setae
Last Zoea (Eighth or Ninth) Antennal flagellum longer than scale with more than 8 segments. Pleopods with appendix interna. Telson triangular with the migration of the first and second pairs of dorso-lateral spines almost concluded (telson form almost similar to an adult)