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Table 1 Criteria used to define maturity stages in male and female R. clavata, adapted from Zeiner and Wolf (1993)

From: Reproductive biology of Raja clavata (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae) from Southern Black Sea coast around Turkey

Stage Male characteristics Female characteristics
Immature No coiling of vas deferens
Testes small and undeveloped
Claspers do not extend past posterior edge of pelvic fin
Small undeveloped ovaries and nidamental glands
No differentiated ova present
Maturing Some coiling of vas deferens
Testes enlarging
Claspers extend past pelvic fin edge but are only somewhat calcified
Ovaries beginning to enlarge and differentiate
Ova white, distinguishable but small
Nidamental glands widening but still gelatinous in appearance
Mature Complete coiling of vas deferens
Large developed testes
Calcified claspers
Large yellow (yolked) ova, greater than 2.0 cm in diameter
Large, solid, functional nidamental glands