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Table 1 Activity patterns of intertidal grapsoids (Grapsidae, Sesarmidae and Varunidae)

From: The influence of habitat, season and tidal regime in the activity of the intertidal crab Neohelice (=Chasmagnathus) granulata

  Time of activity Type of refuge References
Varunidae
Hemigrapsus oregonensis High tides Inside burrows during low tide Willason 1981; Batie 1983
Hemigrapsus sanguineus High tides Under stones or boulders during diurnal low tides Lohrer et al. 2000; Brousseau et al. 2002
Gaetice depressus High tides Under stones or boulders during diurnal low tides Lohrer et al. 2000
Acmaeopleura parvula High tides Under stones or boulders during diurnal low tides Lohrer et al. 2000
Cyclograpsus insularum High tides Under stones or boulders during low tides Brockerhoff and McLay 2005
Cyclograpsus lavauxi High tides Under stones or boulders during low tides Brockerhoff and McLay 2005
Helice tridens High tides Inside burrows during low tides Kurihara et al. 1988
Helicana (=Helice) japonica High tides Inside burrows during low tides Omori et al. 1997
Cyrtograpsus angulatus Active in the air–water boundary during both high and low tides Under stones or boulders, inside N. granulata burrows if available or migration to the subtidal (low tides) Boschi 1964; personal observations
Cyrtograpsus altimanus Not observed Under stones or boulders, or inside Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) reefs (low tides) Spivak 1999
Metaplax elegans Low tides Inside burrows Ng and Sivasothi 2001
Helograpsus haswellianus Low tides Inside burrows during high tides Breitfuss 2003
Paragrapsus gaimardii Nocturnal low tides Buried in sand during the day Snow 1973
Austrohelice (=Helice) crassa Low and high tides Inside burrows Williams et al.1985
Neohelice granulata Mainly during high tides; less frequently during low tides; diurnal or nocturnal; activity varied among sites Inside burrows (low tides) This paper
Chasmagnathus convexus Low tides nocturnal Inside burrows Nakasone et al. 1982
Grapsidae
Pachygrapsus socius (= P. transversus) Diurnal and nocturnal low tides In rock holes and crevices during high tides Abele et al. 1986
P. marmoratus Nocturnal low tides In rock crevices during high tides Cannicci et al. 1999; Ferreira Silva et al. 2009
P. crassipes in salt marshes Above and below the water line during low tides; movement changed during the tidal amplitude cycle Inside H. oregonensis burrows Willason 1981; Morgan et al. 2006
P. crassipes in rocky shore Nocturnal low tides In rock holes and crevices during high tides Hiatt 1948
Metopograpsus thukuhar Mainly at low tides but also at high tides In crevices of mangle roots (Rhizophora mucronata) Fratini et al. 2000
Grapsus grapsus Low tides In crevices or on the surface of rocks Romero 2003
Grapsus tenuicristatus Diurnal low and high tides In crevices at night Eshky 1999
G. adscensionis Diurnal low tides In crevices or on the surface of rocks during nocturnal low and high tides and diurnal high tides Hartnoll 2009
Sesarmidae
Sesarma reticulatum Nocturnal high tides Inside burrows during low tides Palmer 1967; Seiple 1981
Armases (=Sesarma) cinereum Nocturnal Diurnal, under boards and debris Seiple 1979; Seiple and Mueller 1992
Sesarma leptosoma Diurnal activity (tree climbing); non-tidal in the morning; related with high tides in the evening In crevices of mangle roots (Rhizophora mucronata) Vannini et al. 1997