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Table 2 Reproductive biology of B. undatum from present and previous studies

From: Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)

Study Location Development temperature (°C) Time to hatching (months) Capsule size (length mm) No. of eggs per capsule Egg diameter (μm) % of eggs that develop No. of veligers per capsule No. hatching juveniles per capsule Length of shell at hatching (mm)
Portmann (1925) Roscoff, France 5–9 n/a n/a 50–>2,000 n/a n/a av. 30 av. 10 n/a
Hancock (1967) Burnham on Crouch, UK n/a 3–4 n/a ≤3,000 n/a n/a 13–14 n/a n/a
Fretter and Graham (1985) n/a n/a 3–9 6–12 500–3,000 200–300 n/a av. 30 3–10 1–1.4
Martel et al. (1986a) Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada 2–3 5–8 n/a 2,700 n/a 1.10 av. 30 av. 30 3
Kideys et al. (1993) Douglas, Isle of Man n/a 3–5 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Valentinsson (2002) Skagerrak, Sweden 4–8 3–4 7–9.5 700–2,300 245–285 0.20–1.20 n/a 2–16 1.9–2.8
Nasution (2003) Irish Sea, Northern Ireland 8–11 2.5–3 n/a av. 2,360a 340 0.47–1.65 n/a n/a Nearly 2b
Nasution et al. (2010) Irish Sea, Northern Ireland 10 3 n/a 558–4,196 n/a 0.47–1.65 n/a n/a 2.1–3.1
Present study Southampton Water, UK 6 4.5–5 5–10.5 475–2,639 200–260 1.01 av. 9–11 av. 9 1.70–3.45
Author, personal observations Breidafjordur, Iceland Approx. 3 n/a 7–10 804–1,441 n/a 1.48 av. 17 n/a n/a
  1. n/a not available in study, av. average, no. number
  2. aRange stated in journal was not possible
  3. bNo accurate value was stated in publication