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Table 5 Spatial differences in the structure of assemblages considering both species and functional group levels at the scales of area, location and site (PERMANOVA; significance level P < 0.05)

From: Spatial variability in intertidal macroalgal assemblages on the North Portuguese coast: consistence between species and functional group approaches

Source df Species Functional groups
MS Pseudo-F P MS Pseudo-F P
Area 1 6,317.300 0.919 0.538 4,646.800 0.856 0.575
Location (Re) 8 6,874.100 1.625 0.002 5,428.800 1.855 0.010
Site (Lo (Re)) 20 4,230.900 1.691 0.001 2,927.000 1.627 0.001
Residual 60 2,502.400    1,799.100   
Total 89