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Table 2 Comparison of adult characters of the species assigned to the R. carolinensis-group

From: First record of Loricifera from the Iberian Peninsula, with the description of Rugiloricus manuelae sp. nov., (Loricifera, Pliciloricidae)

Common features R. carolinensis
Higgins & Kristensen, 1986 (♀?)
R. ornatus
Higgins & Kristensen, 1986 (♂ and ♀)
R. manuelae sp. nov. (♂)
1. Mouth cone Without external armature. Mouth tube with 6 ridges Single ventral seta at mouth opening. Second section with 8 double ridges Second section with 4 ridges bifurcating distally. Eight triangular plates
2. Ruff Absent Present Present
3. Clavoscalid structure Flat. Unsegmented. One spinose tip Flat. Segmented. Longitudinal ridge in proximal segment Flat. Unsegmented. Four spinose tips. Two complete longitudinal ridges
4. Variation in clavoscalids Data not available ♂8 uniform clavoscalids with one cross-wall at distal third Single longitudinal ridge in dorsal pair
♀ 8 clavoscalids; six with two cross-walls and two ventral with single cross-wall  
5. Spinoscalids of second row Elongate. Uniform Dorsal ones elongate; ventral ones leg-like Elongate. All uniform, with finger-like tip
6. Double organ Not fused Short; partly fused Long; not fused
7. All spinoscalids 4–8 rows Filiform, spine-like Filiform, spine-like; 8th row serrated Filiform; spine-like; 8th row finely serrated
8. Type B scalids of fourth row No differences could be found between A and B types Short; double claw tip Very long; single claw tip
9. Scalids of 9th row Beak-like; short Beak-like; short Beak-like; long
10. Round structures Between 8th and 9th rows Not present Between 8th and 9th rows
11. Trichoscalid basal plates bp1: 8 pentagonal with spine
bp2: absent
bp3a: 7 with short spine
bp3b: 8 poorly defined
bp1: 8 with spine + 7 beak-like
bp2: 7 with long spine
bp3: 15 (8 large + 7 small)
bp1: 8 pentagonal with spine
bp2a: 7 triangular
bp2b: 8 three-pointed
bp3: 15 trapezoid (7 large + 8 small)
12. Trichoscalids 15 single; flat with serrated margins ~30 μm long 15 single; flat with serrated margins; ~55 μm long 15 single; flat with serrated margins; ~70 μm long
13. Lorica transverse folds (constrictions) Two: middle and posterior Two: middle (zigzag) and posterior Four: two anterior + two posterior. Midventral pointed oval area at posterior end
14. Anal cone Plate-like; anus dorsal? Large plate surrounded by 12 small plates; anus location unknown 8–10 anal plates (two star-shaped); anus ventral
  1. A similar comparative table for the species in the R. cauliculus-group has been published by Kristensen et al. (2013)