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Table 1 Revised ciliate checklist: seasonality as well as maximum abundance, the mean biovolume and mean carbon content of each taxon according to the results of both monitoring programmes and occurrence frequency of each taxon according to the results of the second monitoring

From: A survey of ciliates at the long-term sampling station “Helgoland Roads”, North Sea

Ciliates Observed seasonality Occurrence frequency (%)a Maximum (cells L−1) Month with maxima Biovolume (μm3 cell−1 ) Carbon (pg cell−1)
Order Strombidiida
 Cyrtostrombidium sp.1 70 μm Jan–Dec 7 480 Apr 9,845 1,871
 Cyrtostrombidium sp.2 160 μm Apr–Jan 3 80 Oct 170,893 32,470
 Laboea strobila Jan–Nov 57 2,240 Mar 91,865 17,454
 Strombidium capitatum Jan–Oct 23 1,120 Apr 99,785 18,959
 Strombidium cf. acutum Jan–Dec 8 3,020 Apr 43,563 8,277
 Strombidium cf. conicum Mar–Sep 16 360 May 24,877 4,727
 Strombidium cf. emergens Jan–Nov 41 2,727 Jun 35,923 6,825
 Strombidium cf. epidemum Jan–Dec 77 24,840 Apr 6,465 1,228
 Strombidium cf. lynii Jan–Dec 39 487 Aug 36,968 7,024
 Strombidium siculum May–Sep 6 73 Jul 11,375 2,161
 Strombidium cf. stylifer Jan–Dec 78 2,480 May 7,296 1,386
 Strombidium cf. sulcatum Jan–Oct 59 8,213 May 8,862 1,684
 Strombidium cf. tressum Mar–Sep 22 2,640 Apr 9,694 1,842
 Strombidium sp.1 20 μm Jan–Dec 71 4,987 Jun 4,977 946
 Strombidium sp.2 25 μm Feb–Sep 14 1,680 Jul 2,463 468
 Strombidium sp.3 30 μm a Jan–Dec 12 540 Apr 5,893 1,120
 Strombidium sp.4 30 μm b Sep–May 3 200 May/Oct 4,157 790
 Strombidium sp.5 35 μm Jan–Dec 28 580 Aug 8,244 1,566
 Strombidium sp.6 50 μm Jan–Sep 11 367 Jul 9,390 1,784
 Strombidium sp.7 60 μm Jan–Dec 22 1,200 Jul 19,294 3,666
 Strombidium sp.8 100 μm Jan–Dec 11 267 May 105,853 20,112
 Tontonia gracillima Jan–Dec 74 3,740 Aug 25,089 4,767
 Tontonia sp. Jan–Dec 17 2,553 Jul 3,886 738
Order Choreotrichida
 Leegaardiella cf. ovalis Jan–Dec 36 380 Feb 5,594 1,063
 Leegaardiella cf. sol Jan–Dec 20 780 Apr 22,301 4,237
 Lohmanniella oviformis Nov–Aug 42 2,753 Jun 4,725 898
 Pelagostrobilidium cf. neptunii Jan–Nov 40 407 Jul 54,726 10,398
 Rimostrombidium cf. sphaericum Jul–??? <1 40 Jul 74,475 14,150
 Rimostrombidium cf. spiralis Jan–Dec 22 207 Oct 18,578 3,530
 Rimostrombidium sp. Jan–Nov 12 1,120 May 100,779 19,148
 Strobilidium sp.1 15 μm Jan–Nov 44 10,160 Aug 1,061 202
 Strobilidium sp.2 45 μm Apr–Aug 13 970 Jun 38,186 7,255
 Strombidinopsis sp.1 90 μm Jul–Apr 10 40 Mar/Oct 94,898 18,031
 Strombidinopsis sp.2 120 μm Jul–Dec 11 333 Jul 103,546 19,674
Order Cyclotrichiida
 Askenasia regina May–Oct 9 380 Oct 172,422 32,760
 Askenasia sp. Apr–Sep 1 60 Jun 269,492 51,203
 Askenasia stellaris May–Sep 14 473 May 50,965 9,683
 Mesodinium cf. pupula May–Mar 6 680 Aug 4,102 779
 Mesodinium major Jan–Dec 90 52,640 Jun 21,637 4,111
 Mesodinium pulex Jan–Dec 20 1,600 Aug 2,258 429
 Mesodinium rubrum Jan–Dec 100 31,760 Jun 2,356 448
Order Tintinnida
 Acanthostomella sp.b       
 Eutintinnus sp.1 30 μm May–Oct 14 240 Oct 4,169 792
 Eutintinnus sp.2 60 μm Aug–Oct 4 120 Aug 32,695 6,212
 Favella ehrenbergii Jul–Oct 11 327 Sep 100,917 19,174
 Salpingella sp. Oct–Jan 8 260 Nov 1,953 371
 Stenosemella cf. pacifica Sep–Jun 27 6,440 May 10,722 2,037
 Tintinnid sp.1 30 μm Jan–Dec 14 1,800 Jun 1,496 284
 Tintinnid sp.2 70 μm Sep–Dec 1 40 Sep 58,219 11,062
 Tintinnidium cf. balechi Jan–Dec 29 1,360 Jan 4,114 782
 Tintinnopsis bütschlii Aug–Sep 4 707 Sep 27,253 5,178
 Tintinnopsis cf. cylindrical Jul–Oct 5 47 Aug 23,842 4,530
 Tintinnopsis cf. parvula Mar–Jan 33 940 Jul 4,279 813
 Tintinnopsis cf. radix Aug–Oct 3 80 Oct 27,489 5,223
 Tintinnopsis sp. Jan–Jul 10 40 Jun 34,653 6,584
Order Euplotida
 Aspidisca sp. Apr–Nov 1 13 Nov 18,368 3,490
 Diophrys cf. appendiculata Feb–Oct 3 13 Jul 13,225 2,513
 Euplotes cf. trisulcatus Apr–Dec 18 353 Jul 7,561 1,437
Order Urostylida
 Holosticha sp. Jan–Dec 20 627 Sep 3,388 644
 Metaurostylopsis cf. salina Nov–??? 2 53 Nov 4,349 826
 Thigmokeronopsis cf. stoecki Aug–??? 1 20 Aug 7,307 1,388
Order Sporadotrichida
 Tachysoma cf. dragescoi Mar–Dec 10 93 May 3,739 710
Order Heterotrichida
 Condylostentor sp. Aug–Sep 2 7 Aug/Sep 32,399 6,156
 Condylostoma sp. Mar–??? <1 7 Mar 38,916 7,394
Order Pleurostomatida
 Litonotus sp. Aug–Nov 3 13 Sep 3,582 681
 Loxophyllum sp. Jul–Nov 2 27 Nov 893 170
Order Dysteriida
 Dysteria sp. Jan–Dec 13 747 Nov 1,926 366
 Hartmannula cf. derouxi Apr–May 2 10 Apr 12,537 2,382
Order Chlamydodontida
 Chlamydonella cf. derouxi Jan–Nov 9 87 Apr 1,543 293
Order Endogenida
 Acineta cf. compressa Apr–Aug 3 60 Aug 35,298 6,707
 Acineta sp. May–Jul 2 13 Jul 27,560 5,236
Order Exogenida
 Ephelota sp. Apr–May 2 7 Apr/May 50,772 9,647
Order Sessilida
 Cothurnia sp. Nov–??? <1 7 Nov 1,779 338
 Vorticella sp. Jan–Dec 3 620 May 6,729 1,278
Order Haptorida
 Chaenea cf. vorax May–??? 2 7 May 38,040 7,228
 Cyclotrichium sp. Mar–Oct 12 380 Apr 595,288 113,105
 Didinium gargantuan Apr–Sep 7 87 Aug 68,770 13,066
 Lacrymaria sp. Jan–Dec 8 20 Mar 35,881 6,817
 Spathidium sp. Mar–Nov 1 500 Jun 5,864 1,114
Order Prorodontida
 Balanion comatum 15 μm Mar–Jan 23 4,426 Jun 443 84
 Balanion comatum 25 μm Jan–Nov 32 1,880 Jun 2,356 448
 Holophrya cf. caspica May–Aug 2 13 May/Aug 69,133 13,135
 Holophrya cf. vorax Aug–Oct 8 80 Aug 92,074 17,494
 Placus sp. Apr–Nov 27 273 Aug 8,954 1,701
 Tiarina fusus Jun–Dec 22 1,687 Sep 7,561 1,437
Miscellaneous
 Aloricate oligotrichs < 10 μm Jan–Dec 29 3,080 Jun 347 66
 Aloricate oligotrichs < 15 μm Jan–Dec 55 19,360 Jun 805 153
 Scuticociliates 10–30 μm Jan–Dec 55 3,980 Sep 1,595 303
 Scuticociliates 30–50 μm Jan–Dec 41 1,320 Aug 17,641 3,352
  1. aOccurrence frequency (%) = the percentage of total occurrence times within 198 samples during the present monitoring
  2. bThere was no information on the abundance and seasonality for this species because only an empty lorica was recorded during the monitoring