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Table 2 Male cells development stages of forkbeard, Phycis phycis

From: Reproductive strategy of forkbeard, Phycis phycis, from the Portuguese coast

Spermatogenic stage


Diameter (μm)

Spermatogonia (Sg)

Appear single or in groups; round shape with a conspicuous cytoplasm and a prominent central nucleus

6.44–9.42 (7.96 ± 0.49)

Primary spermatocytes (Sc1)

Always appear enclosed in cysts; smaller than Sg

3.64–5.77 (4.63 ± 0.34)

Secondary spermatocytes (Sc2)

Similar to Sc1 but smaller

2.53–3.96 (3.28 ± 0.26)

Spermatids (St)

Smaller than Sc2 but still found enclosed in cysts

1.54–2.94 (2.14 ± 0.19)

Spermatozoa (Sz)

Similar to St but with cilia; enclosed in cysts or free in the lumen

1.36–2.04 (1.73 ± 0.13)

  1. A brief description of each cell stage, its range size, and mean and standard deviation (in brackets) are given