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Table 1 Overview of North Sea Echinodermata identified by COI sequence clusters

From: Species identification of echinoderms from the North Sea by combining morphology and molecular data

Species Number of indiviuals Genbank accession number Sampling date Latitude Longitude Depth (m) Cruise/region Station code
Asteroidea
 Forcipulatida, Asteriidae
  Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 5 KX458841-43, 48, 56 Aug 2011 58.2612 11.4510 NA Gulmarsfjord 30
  4 KX458836, 51, 62, 63 Nov 2011 54.1477 7.9000 NA Senckenberg 29
  4 KX458829, 33, 46, 50 Aug 2010 54.3698 7.0881 39 WH335 3
  5 KX458838-40, 55, 58 July 2010 55.0034 2.6403 NA WH335 4
  4 KX458830, 47, 49, 59 Aug 2010 57.8989 −0.9159 99 WH335 2
  4 KX458831, 32, 44, 45 July 2010 60.3703 2.4784 100 WH335 1
  3 KX458852-54 Aug 2011 53.8780 3.9142 40 WH345 8
  5 KX458834, 35, 37, 60, 61 Aug 2011 55.3523 −0.1279 73 WH345 7
  Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 1 KX458857 Mar 2012 56.0902 1.2152 87 WH352 16
6 KX458980-85 July 2010 56.6275 5.3008 59 WH335 5
 Forcipulatida,Stichasteridae
  Stichastrella rosea (O.F. Müller, 1776) 2 KX459109, 10 Aug 2011 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH345 9
 Paxillosida, Astropectinidae
  *Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 1 3 KX458868, 69, 73 July 2010 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH335 9
  3 KX458870, 74, 75 July 2010 60.3703 2.4784 100 WH335 1
  2 KX458871-72 Mar 2012 56.0902 1.2152 87 WH352 16
  *Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 2 5 KX458880, 81, 95, 98, 99 July 2010 54.3698 7.0881 39 WH335 3
  3 KX458887, 96, KX458900 Aug 2010 54.3698 7.0881 39 WH335 3
  3 KX458889, 97, KX458902 Aug 2010 55.3523 −0.1279 73 WH335 7
  3 KX458879, 93, 94 July 2010 56.6275 5.3008 59 WH335 5
  5 KX458882-85, 91 Aug 2011 53.8780 3.9142 40 WH345 8
  6 KX458876, 86, 88, 90, 92, KX458901 July 2011 55.5520 7.1295 31 WH345 10
  2 KX458877, 78 Mar 2012 56.0902 1.2152 87 WH352 16
 Paxillosida, Luidiidae
  Luidia sarsii Düben & Koren, in Düben, 1845 5 KX458990, 96, 97, 99, KX459000 July 2010 56.6275 5.3008 59 WH335 5
  5 KX458991, 93, 94, KX459002, 03 July 2011 55.1730 5.1672 41 WH345 11
  5 KX458989, 92, 95, 98, KX459001 Mar 2012 55.1097 −0.5023 83 WH352 17
 Spinulosida, Echinasteridae
  *Henricia sp. 1 1 KX458968 Aug 2011 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH345 9
  *Henricia sp. 2 1 KX458969 Aug 2011 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH345 9
 Valvatida, Asterinidae
  Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 1 KX458826 Mar 2012 57.8815 −3.2573 62 WH352 18
  1 KX458828 Mar 2012 50.1138 0.2923 39 WH352 19
  1 KX458827 Mar 2012 50.5255 0.6980 50 WH352 20
 Valvatida, Goniasteridae
  Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 6 KX458974-79 Aug 2010 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH335 9
  4 KX458970-73 Aug 2011 55.3523 −0.1279 73 WH345 7
 Valvatida, Poraniidae
  Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 1 KX459089 Mar 2012 57.8012 −1.4535 79 WH352 21
 Valvatida, Solasteridae
  Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 1 KX459101 Aug 2011 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH345 9
  2 KX458921, 22 Mar 2012 50.1670 0.9902 31 WH352 22
3 KX458918-20 Mar 2012 50.1138 0.2923 39 WH352 19
  Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 3 KX458915-17 Mar 2012 51.2678 1.7173 48 WH352 23
Echinoidea
 Camarodonta, Echinidae
  Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) 6 KX458956, 59, 61, 63, 65, 66 July 2010 60.3703 2.4784 100 WH335 1
  1 KX458955 Mar 2012 55.4147 −0.0218 74 WH352 24
  2 KX458958, 64 Mar 2012 56.0902 1.2152 87 WH352 16
  4 KX458957, 60, 62, 67 Mar 2012 59.3612 −0.3212 142 WH352 25
 Camarodonta, Parechinidae
  Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) 6 KX459093, 95-98, KX459100 July 2010 56.6275 5.3008 59 WH335 5
  5 KX459090-92, 94, 99 July 2010 55.0034 2.6403 NA WH335 4
 Camarodonta, Strongylocentrotidae
  Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 6 KX459111-16 July 2010 60.3703 2.4784 100 WH335 1
 Clypeasteroida, Echinocyamidae
  Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 1 KX458954 Aug 2010 54.1458 7.8876 54 WH335 6
 Spatangoida, Brissidae         
  Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) 6 KX458903, 06, 09-12 July 2010 56.6275 5.3008 59 WH335 5
  6 KX458904, 05, 07, 08, 13, 14 July 2011 54.8043 3.7380 46 WH345 12
 Spatangoida, Loveniidae
  Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) 6 KX458924, 25, 28, 30, 34, 35 Aug 2010 54.3698 7.0881 39 WH335 3
  2 KX458929, 32 July 2011 54.8043 3.7380 46 WH345 12
  5 KX458923, 26, 27, 31, 36 July 2011 55.2090 6.9848 37 WH345 13
  1 KX458933 Mar 2012 54.8732 −0.9582 68 WH352 26
  Echinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 6 KX458938, 40, 41, 44, 45, 49 July 2010 60.3703 2.4784 100 WH335 1
  5 KX458937, 39, 47, 51, 53 July 2011 54.8043 3.7380 46 WH345 12
  3 KX458946, 48, 50 Mar 2012 56.0902 1.2152 87 WH352 16
  3 KX458942, 43, 52 Mar 2012 54.8732 −0.9582 68 WH352 26
 Spatangoida, Spatangidae 
  Spatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 4 KX459102-05 July 2010 60.3703 2.4784 100 WH335 1
  3 KX459106-08 Mar 2012 56.0902 1.2152 87 WH352 16
Ophiuroidea
 Euryalida, Asteronychidae
  Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1842 4 KX458864-67 Aug 2011 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH345 9
 Ophiurida, Amphiuridae
  Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) 2 KX458801, 02 Oct 2011 54.0500 7.9000 NA Helgoland 31
  Amphiura chiajei Forbes, 1843 1 KX458805 Aug 2011 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH345 9
  3 KX458803, 04, 06 Aug 2011 58.2612 11.4510 NA Gulmarsfjord 30
  Amphiura filiformis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 5 KX458810, 16, 17, 23, 24 Aug 2011 54.2553 4.5388 48 WH345 14
  3 KX458821, 22, 25 Aug 2011 58.2612 11.4510 NA Gulmarsfjord 30
  11 KX458807-09, 11-15, 18-20 Oct 2011 54.0500 7.9000 NA Helgoland 31
 Ophiurida, Ophiactidae
  Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) 4 KX459017, 18, 23, 24 Aug 2011 55.3523 −0.1279 73 WH345 7
  4 KX459016, 19-21 Aug 2011 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH345 9
  1 KX459022 Mar 2012 55.1097 −0.5023 83 WH352 17
  Ophiactis balli (W. Thompson, 1840) 1 KX459004 Aug 2011 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH345 9
 Ophiurida, Ophiotrichidae
  Ophiothrix fragilis (Abildgaard, in O.F. Müller, 1789) 6 KX459027, 29-31, 34, 35 July 2010 56.6275 5.3008 59 WH335 5
  4 KX459033, 36-38 July 2011 55.2090 6.9848 37 WH345 13
  1 KX459032 July 2011 55.1730 5.1672 41 WH345 11
  3 KX459025, 26, 28 Mar 2012 51.2678 1.7173 48 WH352 23
 Ophiurida, Ophiuridae
  Ophiocten affinis (Lütken, 1858) 5 KX459005-07, 13, 14 Aug 2011 56.6275 5.3008 59 WH345 5
  2 KX459008, 09 Aug 2011 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH345 9
  4 KX459010-12, 15 Aug 2011 60.3703 2.4784 100 WH345 1
  Ophiura albida Forbes, 1839 4 KX459039, 41, 52, 53 Aug 2010 54.3698 7.0881 39 WH335 3
  2 KX459045, 47 July 2011 55.2090 6.9848 37 WH345 13
  4 KX459040, 44, 48, 51 Aug 2011 60.3703 2.4784 100 WH345 1
  4 KX459043, 46, 49, 50 Aug 2011 53.8618 4.6167 42 WH345 15
  1 KX459042 Mar 2012 54.8840 2.3420 28 WH352 27
  Ophiura ophiura (Linnaeus, 1758) 3 KX459059, 63, 69 July 2010 56.6275 5.3008 59 WH335 5
  3 KX459061, 66, 67 July 2010 60.3703 2.4784 100 WH335 1
  3 KX459071-73 Aug 2010 54.3698 7.0881 39 WH335 3
  3 KX459062, 64, 68 Aug 2010 57.8989 −0.9159 99 WH335 2
  4 KX459054, 65, 70, 74 Jan 2011 54.3698 7.0881 39 WH340 3
  1 KX459076 Aug 2011 60.3703 2.4784 100 WH345 1
  4 KX459056-58, 77 Aug 2011 55.3523 −0.1279 73 WH345 7
  5 KX459055, 60, 78-80 Aug 2011 53.8780 3.9142 40 WH345 8
  2 KX459075, 81 Mar 2012 55.1097 −0.5023 83 WH352 17
  1 KX459082 Mar 2012 55.7447 0.5910 80 WH352 28
  Ophiura sarsii Lütken, 1855 5 KX459083-87 July 2010 56.6275 5.3008 59 WH335 5
  1 KX459088 Mar 2012 55.7447 0.5910 80 WH352 28
Holothuroidea
 Apodida, Synaptidae
  Leptosynapta sp. Verrill, 1867 3 KX458986-88 July 2007 58.7445 2.5644 111 WH302 9
 Dendrochirotida, Phyllophoridae
  Thyone fusus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 1 KX459117 Aug 2011 55.3523 −0.1279 73 WH345 7
  1. The asterisks mark those species for which morphological and molecular discrimination were not congruent