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Table 1 The effects of species, feeding area and season on the body size, condition factor (CF), lipid content (%), total thiamine concentration (nmol g−1), the proportions of fatty acids (FAs) and their sums of sprat and herring caught in the Baltic Proper (BPr), Bothnian Sea (BS) and Gulf of Finland (GoF) in autumn and spring, tested by MANOVA and least squares means post hoc analysis (Lsmeans) for significant differences between the means

From: Fatty acid composition of sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea as potential prey for salmon (Salmo salar)

Variable Species Area Season
MANOVA
p <
Lsmeans
p < 0.05
MANOVA
p <
Lsmeans
p < 0.05
MANOVA
p <
Lsmeans
p < 0.05
Body weight    ns ns ns ns
Body length    ns ns ns ns
CF    0.001 GoF < BPr, BS 0.001 Spring < autumn
Lipid 0.001 Herring < sprat 0.001 GoF < BPr < BS 0.001 Spring < autumn
Total thiamine ns ns ns ns ns ns
Saturated FAs (SFA)
14:0 0.001 Sprat < herring 0.05 BS < BPr; GoF = BPr, BS 0.01 Autumn < spring
16:0 ns ns 0.05 GoF < BPr; BS = BPr, GoF 0.001 Autumn < spring
17:0 ns ns ns ns ns ns
18:0 0.05 Herring < sprat ns BS < GoF; BPr = BS, GoF 0.01 Autumn < spring
SFA ns ns ns GoF < BPr; BS = BPr, GoF 0.001 Autumn < spring
Monounsaturated FAs (MUFA)
16:1n-7 0.05 Sprat < herring 0.05 GoF < BS; BPr = BS, GoF ns ns
17:1n-8 0.001 Herring < sprat ns ns ns ns
18:1n-7 0.001 Sprat < herring 0.01 GoF < BS; BPr = BS, GoF 0.001 Autumn < spring
18:1n-9 0.001 Herring < sprat ns ns ns ns
20:1n-9 ns ns ns ns ns ns
MUFA 0.001 Herring < sprat ns ns ns ns
Polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA)
18:2n-6 0.001 Sprat < herring 0.01 BPr, GoF < BS; BPr = GoF ns ns
18:3n-3 ns ns 0.05 GoF, BPr < BS; BPr = GoF 0.001 Spring < autumn
20:2n-6 ns ns ns ns ns ns
20:4n-6 (ARA) 0.01 Sprat < herring ns ns 0.001 Autumn < spring
20:5n-3 (EPA) ns ns ns ns ns ns
22:5n-3 ns ns ns GoF < BS; BPr = GoF, BS 0.001 Spring < autumn
22:6n-3 (DHA) ns ns 0.001 BS < BPr, GoF; BPr = GoF 0.001 Autumn < spring
PUFA ns ns ns ns ns ns
n-3 PUFA ns ns 0.05 BS < BPr, GoF; BPr = GoF 0.05 Autumn < spring
n-6 PUFA 0.001 Sprat < herring 0.01 BPr, GoF < BS; BPr = GoF ns ns
n-3/n-6 0.05 Herring < sprat 0.01 BS < BPr, GoF; BPr = GoF 0.05 Autumn < spring
  1. Statistical tests were performed for age group pools (total body homogenates) of sprat and herring (17 pools for sprat and 24 for herring), each consisting of 12–92 specimens for sprat and 7–133 specimens for herring. The significances of differences in MANOVA and the Lsmeans test for the three effectors are given for each of the variables; ns non-significant (p ≥ 0.05)