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Table 1 Categorization scheme for the stages in the invasion process, modified from Blackburn et al. [8]

From: Non-indigenous species (NIS) of polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of the Iberian Peninsula: an annotated checklist

Category Definition
A Not transported beyond limits of native range
B Individuals transported beyond limits of native range, but not released in the wild
C0 Individuals released in the wild, but incapable of surviving for a significant period
C1 Individuals surviving in the wild in location where introduced, no reproduction
C2 Individuals surviving in the wild in location where introduced, reproduction occurring, but population not self-sustaining
C3 Individuals surviving in the wild in location where introduced, population self-sustaining
D1 Self-sustaining population in the wild, with individuals surviving a significant distance from the original point of introduction
D2 Self-sustaining population in the wild, with individuals surviving and reproducing a significant distance from the original point of introduction
E Fully invasive, with individuals dispersing, surviving and reproducing at multiple sites across a significant spectrum of habitats