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Table 1 Summary of studies addressing the sudden appearance and/or disappearance of nudibranchs in intertidal areas

From: Nudibranchs out of water: long-term temporal variations in the abundance of two Dendrodoris species under emersion

References Species Location Observation dates Emersion Main findings on population fluctuation
[36] Chromodoris zebra Fairyland Creek and Millbrook Creek, Bermuda June–August of 1913–1914, Aug 1915–Oct 1916, Jan 1917 Not mentioned Diurnal shoreward movement in response to physical conditions (e.g. positive phototropism)
[4] Doris bilamellata Wimereux, France August of 1922 Not mentioned Appearance and disappearance in the intertidal area related to spawning migrations and subsequent adult death after spawning
[9] Embletonia fuscata Barnegat Bay, USA Nov 1928, Jun to Sep 1929 Not mentioned Fluctuations due to the fortuitous settlement and rapid development of larvae in the intertidal zone, which were brought by waves and currents. Post-spawning disappearance related to mortality by food scarcity and/or environmental factors such as low temperature
[7] 22 species (**) Monterey Bay, USA Nov 1934 to May 1935, Jul to Aug 1936 Not mentioned (tide pools) Fluctuations due to fortuitous larval settlement in the intertidal zone, which were brought by currents and waves
[27] 30 species (****) The Netherlands Not specified Lamellidoris bilamellata Emerged to forage N/A
[10] 24 species (***) Isle of Man, UK Oct 1955 to Jun 1958 Acteonia senestra in exposed rocks Fluctuations due to fortuitous larval settlement in the intertidal zone, which were brought by currents and waves, and disappearance due to low food availability
[11] Archidoris montereyensis Vancouver Island, Canada May 1969, Oct 1970 Exposed by low tides Fluctuations due to fortuitous larval settlement in the intertidal zone. Post-spawning disappearance related to mortality by food scarcity, physical stress by environmental factors (e.g. temperature and dissection) or dislodgment by storms
[5] Triopha maculata Asilomar State Beach, USA Oct 1969 to Jul 1973 No Emergence of individuals from under rocks, influenced by wave action. Disappearance due to death after spawning
[37] Onchidoris bilamellata Wimereux, France Jul to Aug 1991 Not mentioned No evidence of mass aggregations or tidal migrations
[38] 10 species (*) Delta Area, the Netherlands Jan 1990 to Dec 1991 No In species with more than one generation per year, fluctuations are related to prey availability. In species with annual life cycles, fluctuations are related to other factors such as temperature
[39] Archidoris montereyensis Beach State Park, USA Jul 1994 to Jun 1999 Not mentioned Selective larval settlement in response to prey chemical cues and adult aggregations associated with prey density
[12] Dendrodoris limbata Sant Antoni, Spain Nov 1992, Sep 1994, Feb 1997 to Jan 1999 Not mentioned Disappearance related to death after spawning
[6] Onchidoris bilamellata Millport, Scotland Jul 2006 No Subtidal mass migration and aggregation for copulation and spawning due to magnetic cues or mucus trail-following. No evidence of death after spawning
[40] Kalinga ornata Chennai coast, India Jul–Dec 2011 No Fluctuations due to aggregations to breed. No evidence of death after spawning. Disappearance due to migration for more suitable areas (e.g. food availability)
  1. The list of species in the studies marked with asterisks is shown as Additional file 1: Table S1