Open Access

Taxonomic biodiversity of geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from the Macaronesian region: summary and analysis

  • Edgar F. Rosas-Alquicira1, 2, 3Email author,
  • Rafael Riosmena-Rodríguez3,
  • Julio Afonso-Carrillo4 and
  • Ana I. Neto1, 2
Helgoland Marine Research201065:209

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10152-010-0209-0

Received: 30 October 2009

Accepted: 23 June 2010

Published: 10 July 2010

Abstract

A catalog and critical review of species and infraspecific taxa of non-fossil geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) previously reported from the Macaronesian region are presented along with an assessment of species diversity in the region. Published records of geniculate coralline algae are included along with comments relating to type material. Within the catalog, taxa are organized alphabetically by genus and within this by final epithet. From the 31 taxa recorded, 4 are based on type collections from Macaronesian localities. The types of most species and infraspecific taxa reported from the region have yet to be re-examined in a modern context, and most Macaronesian records require verification. The biodiversity of Macaronesian geniculate coralline algae may be lower than current information indicates.

Keywords

Analysis Baseline Corallinales Geniculate Macaronesia Taxonomy

Introduction

The Macaronesian region sensu lacto includes the Azores, Madeira and Salvage Islands (Portugal), the Canaries (Spain) and Cape Verde Islands (Fig. 1). The first studies of (non-fossil) coralline geniculate red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in this region go back to the beginning of the XIX century with the paper of Lamarck (1815: 233, 237), who described Corallina millegrana and Corallina purpurata for the Canary Islands.
Fig. 1

The Macaronesian region

An important contribution to the knowledge of Macaronesian Corallinales, with an extensive collection for the region, was done by the Dutch oceanographic expeditions CANCAP, in the 1970 and 1980s, with material collected in the Azores, Madeira, Salvage, the Canaries and Cape Verde Islands (Prud’homme van Reine 1988).

Historical revisions of phycological studies including the coralline algae are those by Neto (1994) for the Azores, Levring (1974) and Neto et al. (2001) for Madeira, Afonso-Carrillo (1988) and Haroun et al. (2002) for the Canary Islands and Prud’homme van Reine (1988) for Cape Verde Islands. The accounts of the coralline algae published by Price et al. (1986, 1992) include information on Macaronesian material but only for Cape Verde and the Canary Islands. The work of John et al. (2004) also included data from Madeira but the Azores were not considered in any of these publications.

Currently, there are 31 names of geniculate coralline seaweeds reported for the Macaronesian region but there is no published information compiling the data from the various archipelagos. Information is also lacking on basionym, type material locality, localization, and illustrations, current nomenclatural situation and taxonomic status.

The present study provides a baseline summary and analysis of existing taxonomic information on the geniculate Corallinales for the Macaronesian region sensu lacto, along with comments and/or nomenclatural notes as required.

Arrangement of the catalog

The species records were compiled from identification keys, floristic studies, checklists and published catalogs. Unpublished theses and reports were not considered because some involved names that are not effectively published in the context of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN, McNeill et al. 2006).

The type material of a number of taxa of geniculate Corallinales reported from the Macaronesian region has not been studied in the modern context of taxonomy, meaning that the descriptions are incomplete and factually inaccurate, include criteria that are unreliable and are not based on original research encompassing specific morphological, anatomical and ultrastructural investigations. The presence or absence of genicula in those taxa has been inferred from the genus in which the taxon was placed originally. Thus, taxa whose types have not been studied in a modern context but that originally were described as species or infraspecific taxa of Amphiroa J. V. Lamouroux, Cheilosporum (Decaisne) Zanardini, Corallina Linnaeus, Haliptilon (Decaisne) Lindley and Jania J. V. Lamouroux are presumed to possess genicula.

Taxa are listed in alphabetical order by the currently accepted name for the genera and constitutent species. For each taxon, the following information is provided: basionym, type material localization, type locality, published illustrations of type material, reference to its study in a modern context and current placement/name. Table 1 summarizes this information. Published records for the Macaronesian region are also provided, following a north–south latitudinal order: Azores, Madeira, Salvage Islands, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. For each archipelago, homotypic synonyms are arranged in chronological order, with author citations and publications details provided for each.
Table 1

Current status and disposition of geniculate Corallinales reported from the Macaronesian region

Current placement/name

Basionym

Valid publication

Type material studied in modern context

Remarks

Species status

Genus

Epithet

Amphiroa

beauvoisii

=

Lamouroux 1816: 299–300

Norris and Johansen 1981, Harvey et al. 2009

 

Distinct species

cryptarthrodia

Corallina verrucosa

Zanardini 1840: 136

Rosas-Alquicira et al. 2010

 

Distinct species

exilis

=

Harvey 1849: 95

  

Uncertain

fragilissima

Corallina fragilissima

Linnaeus 1758: 806

Weber-van Bosse 1904

 

Distinct species

rigida

=

Lamouroux 1816: 297

Norris and Johansen 1981

 

Distinct species

verruculosa

Amphiroa verrucosa

Kützing 1841: 18

Hamel and Lemoine 1953, Rosas-Alquicira et al. 2010

 

Synonym of A. cryptarthrodia

Chieilosporum

elegans

Amphiroa elegans

Hooker and Harvey 1849: 101

 

Generic disposition as Cheiolosporum certain

Uncertain

Corallina

deshayesii

=

Montagne 1846: 130

 

Designation/localization of the type material is required

Uncertain

elongata

=

Ellis and Solander 1786: 119

Irvine and Johansen 1994

 

Distinct species

granifera

=

Ellis and Solander 1786: 120

 

Designation/localization of the type material is required

Uncertain

lobata a

=

Lamouroux 1816v 286

Only a fragment of the holotype was studied (Garbary and Johansen 1982)

Generic disposition as Corallina certain

Uncertain

mediterranea

=

Areschoug in Agardh 1852: 568

 

Considered a synonym of C. elongata (Irvine and Johansen 1994), but without comparing both types

Uncertain

microptera a

=

Montagne 1846: 130

Only a fragment of the holotype was studied (Garbary and Johansen 1982)

Generic disposition as Corallina certain

Uncertain

millegrana a

=

Lamarck 1815: 233

Only a fragment of the holotype was studied (Garbary and Johansen 1982)

Generic disposition as Corallina certain

Uncertain

officinalis

=

Linnaeus 1758: 805

Irvine and Johansen 1944, Walker et al. 2009

 

Distinct species

Haliptilon

cubensis

Jania cubensis

Montagne in Kützing 1849: 709–710

Only a fragment of the holotype was studied (Garbary and Johansen 1982)

Generic disposition as Haliptilon certain

Uncertain

purpuratum a

Corallina purpurata

Lamarck 1815: 237

Only a fragment of the holotype was studied (Garbary and Johansen 1982)

Generic disposition as Haliptilon certain

Uncertain

squamatum

Corallina squamata

Linnaeus 1758: 806

Johansen et al. 1973, Irvine and Johansen 1994

No

Distinct species

virgatum

Corallina virgata

Zanardini 1844: 1025

Only a fragment of the type was studied (Garbary and Johansen 1982)

Generic disposition as Haliptilon certain

Uncertain

Jania

adhaerens

=

Lamouroux 1816: 270

  

Uncertain

capillacea

=

Harvey 1853: 84-85

  

Uncertain

crassa

=

Lamouroux 1821: 23, Johansen and Womersley 1944

 

Considered a synonym of Jania verrucosa (Johansen and Womersley 1944), but without comparing both types

Uncertain

intermedia

Corallina intermedia

Kützing 1858: 37–38,42

 

Designation/localization of the type material is required

Nomen nodum (Woelkerling and Nelson 2004)

longifurca

=

Zanardini 1844: 1025

 

Designation/localization of the type material is required

Uncertain

micrarthrodia

=

Lamouroux 1816: 271

Johansen and Womersley 1944

No

Distinct species

natalensis

=

Harvey 1849: 107

 

Considered a synonym of Jania verrucosa (Johansen and Womersley 1944), but without comparing both types

Uncertain

pumila

=

Lamouroux 1816: 269

 

Holotype in poor conditions being difficult to interpret (Johansen and Womersley 1944)

Uncertain

rubens var. corniculata

Corallina corniculata

Linnaeus 1758: 806

  

Uncertain

rubens var. rubens

Corallina rubens

Linnaeus 1758: 806

Irvine and Johansen 1944

 

Distinct species

tenella

Corallina tenella

Kützing 1858: 41

  

Uncertain

verrucosa

=

Lamouroux 1816: 270

 

Considered a distinct species of Jania (Johansen and Womersley 1944) but without studying its type

Uncertain

aSpecies based on types from the Macaronesian region

In the case of taxa for which the type material is not known, or when known, was not revised, nor were the specimens studied in the modern context of taxonomy the status and/or disposition of the taxa is reported as uncertain. Family names of authors are written out in full and Herbarium abbreviations follow Holmgren and Holmgren (1998).

Catalog

Amphiroa

Currently, the genus Amphiroa is recognized as one of six genera in the Corallinaceae, subfamily Lithophylloideae (Bailey 1999, Table 4, p. 214). Presently its generic concept is consensual and a detailed diagnosis is provided by Womersley and Johansen (1996: 283–284) and Harvey et al. (2009: 259; Table 1, p. 260). The relationship between Amphiroa and other Lithophylloideae genera is provided in Woelkerling et al. (2002, Table 2, p. 370: Table 3, p. 372). The work by Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 33–34) provides a key for species diagnosis in the Canaries.

Amphiroa beauvoisii J. V. Lamouroux

Basionym: Amphiroa beauvoisii J. V. Lamouroux 1816: 299–300. Holotype: CN (Norris and Johansen 1981: 6); illustrations: Norris and Johansen (1981, Fig. 7b, p. 6) and Harvey et al. (2009, Figs. 18–21, p. 270; Figs. 22–23, p. 271). Type locality: Portugal coasts (Lamouroux 1816: 299).

Current placement/name:

A. beauvoisii J. V. Lamouroux according to Norris and Johansen (1981: 6) and Harvey et al. (2009: 268–273) based on the study of the holotype.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Gain (1914: 22), Schmidt (1931: 67), Feldmann (1946: 421), Ardré (1970: 224), Cordeiro-Marino (1978: 46), South and Tittley (1986: 42), Reyes and Sansón (1991: 74), Schneider and Searles (1991: 226), Neto (1994: 25), Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 70), Tittley and Neto (1994: 7), Cremades et al. (1997: 13), and Rosas-Alquicira and Neto (personal observation).

  • MADEIRA: Levring (1974: 68), Augier (1985: 101) and John et al. (2004: 58).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: John et al. (2004: 58).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1984: 30), Price et al. (1986: 10), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (1987: 146, 2003: 25), Viera-Rodríguez (1987: 241), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 26; 1999: 195), Guadalupe et al. (1995: 37), Haroun et al. (2002: 146), Sangil et al. (2003a: 87; 2004: 89) and Muñoz et al. (2007: 107).

Amphiroa cryptarthrodia Zanardini

Basionym: Corallina verrucosa Zanardini 1840: 136. Neotype: MCVE unnumbered, Zanardini’s original collection nr. 14 (Rosas-Alquicira et al. 2010): illustrations: Hamel and Lemoine (1953, pl. 5, p. 43) and Rosas-Alquicira et al. (2010, Figs. 1, 4–20) as Amphiroa verruculosa Kützing; Rosas-Alquicira et al. (2010, Figs. 27–36) as Amphiroa cryptarthrodia Zanardini. Syntype localities: Trieste and Dalmazia, Adriatic Sea (Rosas-Alquicira et al. 2010).

Current placement/name:

A. cryptarthrodia Zanardini according to Rosas-Alquicira et al. (2010) based on the study of neotype material. Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1983: 46) cited the presence of A. cryptathrodia at the Canaries as dubious.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Schmidt (1931: 67), Audiffred and Weisscher (1984: 17), South and Tittley (1986: 42), Neto (1994: 25), Tittley and Neto (1994: 7) and Rosas-Alquicira and Neto (personal observation).

  • MADEIRA: Levring (1974: 68), Audiffred and Weisscher (1984: 17, 33) and John et al. (2004: 58).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Audiffred and Weisscher (1984: 17, 33), Price et al. (1986: 11) and John et al. (2004: 58).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Lemoine (1929: 71), Gil-Rodríguez and Afonso-Carrillo (1980: 35), Price et al. (1986: 11) and John et al. (2004: 58).

Amphiroa exilis Harvey

Basionym: Amphiroa exilis Harvey 1849: 95. Syntypes: TCD specimens Darwin 595 (with annotation Det. H.W. Johansen Sept 1967) and Darwin 629 (two specimens), BM Darwin 595 (one sheet with the stamp of Hookerianum Herbarium 1867 and the annotation A. exilis) and Darwin 629 (with the annotation A. exilis); illustrations: Porter (1987, BM Darwin 595, Fig. 1, p. 188; BM Darwin 629, Fig. 2, p. 189). Type locality: Botofogo Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Porter 1987: 188–189); Algoa Bay, Cape Province, South Africa (Silva et al. 1996: 220).

Current placement/name:

A. beauvoisii J. V. Lamouroux but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. Yendo (1905: 4) based on Madam Weber-van Bosse observations (1904: 100) of Harvey’s plants (A. exilis presumed type material) proposed A. exilis as a heterotypic synonym of A. beauvoisii. The synonym A. beauvoisii was accepted by Prud’Homme van Reine (1994: 70) based on the concept of Price et al. (1986) for the Azorean material of A. exilis that had been collected and identified by Piccone (1889). In contrast to Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994), we think the name A. exilis should be kept until more comparisons and study of type material have been conducted.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Agardh (1870: 363), Piccone (1889: 209) and Tittley et al. (1998: 467).

Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux

Basionym: Corallina fragilissima Linnaeus 1758: 806. Holotype: LINN (Yoshida 1998: 533); illustrations: Lamouroux (1821, Table. 21, Fig. d) and Weber-van Bosse (1904, Fig. 19, pl. XVI) as Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Typelocality: Jamaica (Silva et al. 1996: 223).

Current placement/name:

A. fragilissima (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux according to Weber-van Bosse (1904: 90–91) based on the study of type material.

Published records:

  • AZORES: Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. South and Tittley (1986: 42), Prud’homme van Reine (1988: 179), Neto (1994: 25) and Rosas-Alquicira and Neto (personal observation).

  • MADEIRA: Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Levring (1974: 69).

  • Amphiroa? fragilissima (Linné) J. V. Lamouroux. Neto et al. (2001: 403).

  • Amphiroa fragilissima. Grunow (1868: 79).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Amphiroa fragilissima J. V. Lamouroux. Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1983: 30), Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 70), Haroun et al. (2002: 146).

  • Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Afonso-Carrillo (1980b: 54), Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1984: 32), Price et al. (1986: 73), Afonso-Carrillo (1986: 190), González et al. (1986: 315), Viera-Rodríguez (1987: 242), Reyes and Sansón (1991: 74), Elejabeitia et al. (1992: 3), Pinedo et al. (1992: 32), Guadalupe et al. (1995: 37), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 195), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25), Montañés et al. (2003: 124) and Sangil et al. (2003a: 87; b: 310; 2004: 89).

  • Amphiroa fragilissima. Jorge et al. (1984: 118) and Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 26).

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Amphiroa fragilissima J. V. Lamouroux. Price et al. (1986: 73).

  • Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Price et al. (1986: 73) and Otero-Schmitt and Sanjuan (1992: 382).

Amphiora rigida J. V. Lamouroux

Basionym: Amphiroa rigida J. V. Lamouroux 1816: 297. Holotype: CN (Norris and Johansen 1981: 20); illustrations: Lamouroux (1816, pl. 11, Fig. 1, p. 297); Cremades et al. (1997, PC, Fig. C, p. 16). Type locality: Mediterranean (Lamouroux 1816: 297).

Current placement/name:

A. rigida J. V. Lamouroux according to Norris and Johansen (1981: 21) based on study of holotype material. The presence of this species in the Canary Islands was confirmed by Haroun et al. (2002: 139) but authors did not mentioned if they saw the material. This species is closely related to A. cryptarthrodia Zanardini, and it is likely that the reports of A. rigida in the Azores correspond to misdeterminations of A. cryptarthrodia (Rosas-Alquicira and Neto, personal observation).

Published records:
  • AZORES: Piccone (1889: 208), South and Tittley (1986: 42), Neto (1994: 25) and Tittley et al. (1998: 467).

  • Amphiroa cf. rigida J.V. Lamouroux. Tittley and Neto (1994: 7).

  • MADEIRA: Levring (1974: 68) and John et al. (2004: 59).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Price et al. (1986: 12), Guadalupe et al. (1995: 37), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25) and John et al. (2004: 59).

Amphiroa rigida. Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 26).

CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: John et al. (2004: 59).

Amphiroa verruculosa Kützing

Basionym: Amphiroa verrucosa Kützing 1841: 18. Holotype: L 0055675; illustrations: Kützing (1849, pl. 79, fig. III, p. 700) and Rosas-Alquicira et al. (2010, Figs. 27–36) as Amphiroa verruculosa. Type locality: Adriatic Sea (Kützing 1849: 700).

Current placement/name:

A. cryptarthrodia Zanardini according to Rosas-Alquicira et al. (2010) based on the study of neotype material. Neto et al. (2001: 412) cited a doubtful record of A. verruculosa from the Archipelago of Madeira.

Published records:
  • MADEIRA: Feldmann (1946: 425) and Neto et al. (2001: 412).

Cheilosporum

The genera Cheilosporum, Haliptilon and Jania were grouped into the Janieae tribe, subfamily Corallinoideae, based on the combination of the following features: (1) presence of a thick carposporophytic fusion cell; (2) gonimoblastic filaments arising from fusion cell margins; (3) male conceptacles chambers narrow with a short canal and (4) few tetrasporangia per conceptacle (Johansen and Silva 1978: 413; Table 1, p. 414). According to these authors, Cheilosporum distinguishes from other Janieae genera by possessing a marginal rather than axial location of conceptacles and the presence of pronounced intergenicular lobes. A complete diagnosis of the genus was provided by Johansen (1981, Appendix 1, p. 216). Womersley and Johansen (1996: 296) included a key for the Janieae genera in their book for Southern Australia where they mentioned as segregating generic characters, the branching pattern of the main axes, the intergenicular shape and the conceptacles position. Kim et al. (2007), based on combined molecular (SSU rDNA) and anatomical data (Table 1, p. 1313), determined that these characters were not useful to separate the three genera. They concluded that the Janieae should be merged only into the single genus Jania recognized by the generic characters previously listed by Johansen and Silva (1978: 413; Table 1, p. 414). This conclusion was followed by Woelkerling et al. (2008). Walker et al. (2009), based on cox1 and 18S rRNA analysis of Haliptilon squamatum and Jania rubens, also concluded they were not distinct but suggested that the clarification of the phylogenetic position of Haliptilon and Jania required more comparisons and study of original material of the genera involved. We share the opinion of Walker et al. (2009), a reason why in the present catalog the genera and species of Cheilosporum, Haliptilon and Jania are treated separately.

Cheilosporum elegans J. E. Areschoug

Basionym: Amphiroa elegans J. D. Hooker and Harvey 1849: 101. Type: TCD Colenso specimen 630; illustrations: Harvey (1849, pl. 38 lower left, p. 101). Typelocality: New Zealand (Woelkerling and Nelson 2004: 54).

Current placement/name:

Cheilosporum elegans J. E. Areschoug but status and disposition of species uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context (Woelkerling and Nelson 2004: 55). This conclusion was based on specimens originally described by Hooker and Harvey (in Harvey 1849: 101) under the name Amphiroa elegans, an illegitimate name (ICBN Art. 53.1) since it is a later homonym of Amphiroa elegans Sonder (1845: 55), now considered a heterotypic synonym of Metagoniolithon stelliferum (Lamarck) Ducker (Silva et al. 1996: 260). Womersley and Johansen (1996: 315, 317) mentioned C. elegans J. E. Areschoug and also Amphiroa elegans J. D. Hooker & Harvey in Harvey, nom. illeg. as heterotypic synonyms of Cheilosporum sagittatum (Lamouroux) J. E. Areschoug. A similar suggestion was made by Moura and Guimarães (2002; 69) for C. elegans (J. D. Hooker & Harvey in Harvey) Areschoug. These suggestions, however, were made without reviewing type material. Later, Kim et al. (2007) based on molecular and reproductive features proposed to merge material of Cheilosporum and Haliptilon within Jania genus and suggested the new combination Jania cultrata (Harvey) J. H. Kim, Guiry & H.-G. Choi comb. nov. This conclusion, however, was not based on type material observations.

Published records:

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Cheilosporum elegans (J. D. Hooker & Harvey) J. E. Areschoug. Askenasy (1896: 26) and Price et al. (1986: 65).

  • Cheilosporum elegans Harvey. Price et al. (1986: 65).

Corallina

Currently, the genus Corallina is recognized to belong to the Corallinaceae, subfamily Corallinoideae (Johansen 1981, Table 9, p. 188; Harvey et al. 2003, Table 4, p. 995). Its generic concept is consensual. The main characteristics are listed in Johansen (1981: 217), and a detailed diagnosis is provided by Womersley and Johansen (1996: 289–290). The relationship between Corallina and other Corallinoideae genera is provided by Woelkerling et al. (2008, Table 4, p. 282; Table 5, p. 287).

Corallina deshayesii Montagne

Basionym: Corallina deshayesii Montagne 1846: 130. Type: not found; illustrations: not found. Type locality: not found.

Current placement/name:

C. deshayesii Montagne but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. Price et al. (1986: 73) mentioned that C. deshayesii may well be a synonym of Corallina mediterranea J. E. Areschoug. The designation/localization of the type material and its study in a modern context is required.

Published records:
  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1986: 73).

Corallina elongata J. Ellis & Solander

Basionym: Corallina elongata J. Ellis and Solander 1786: 119. Lectotype: Ellis’s illustrations designated by Irvine and Johansen (1994: 41); illustrations: Ellis (1755, pl. 24, Fig. 3, p. 49). Type locality: Cornwall, England (Irvine and Johansen 1994: 41).

Current placement/name:

C. elongata J. Ellis & Solander according to Irvine and Johansen (1994: 41) based on the study of lectotype material. Walker et al. (2009) in their integrative taxonomic approach including phylogenetic reconstructions based on the cox1 and 18S rRNA genes in addition to a comparative morphological assessment study identified three clusters. C. officinalissensu stricto and C. elongata from Britain corresponded to similar groups in the cox1 tree whereas the sequences of the unidentified Corallina specimens from Madeira and Tenerife clustered with sequences of C. caespitosa R. H. Walker, J. Brodie & L. M. Irvine and C. elongata from other locations. The results indicate that the name C. elongata has been misapplied in both the Atlantic and Mediterranean. While the concept of the species is not disputed for those samples from Britain and Ireland, the samples from Greece are C. caespitosa, and those from elsewhere in the Atlantic are of an unknown species and should be re-evaluated. Higher divergences as observed in the sequences identified to the genus from Tenerife and Madeira in the cox1 gene can be interpreted as the result of geographical isolation and gene pool fragmentation (Hebert et al. 2003). These islands are geographically isolated in the Atlantic but it is not known if the populations interbreed with populations from elsewhere in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. For the relationship between C. elongata and C. mediterranea J. E. Areschoug, see C. mediterranea entry.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Castro and Viegas (1983: 20), South and Tittley (1986: 42), Tittley and Neto (1994: 8), Toste et al. (2003: 1270) and Wallenstein and Neto (2006: 199).

  • Corallina elongata Johnst. Castro and Viegas (1987: 63).

  • Corallina elongata. Neto (1994: 26, 2000a: 139, b: 490) and Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 81) and Tittley and Neto (2000: 20).

  • MADEIRA: Audiffred and Prud’homme van Reine (1985: 38) and John et al. (2004: 73).

  • Corallina elongata. Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 81).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1986: 73), Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 81) and John et al. (2004: 73).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Price et al. (1986: 73), Viera-Rodríguez and Wildpret de la Torre (1986: 215), González et al. (1986: 316), Viera-Rodríguez (1987: 242), Viera-Rodríguez et al. (1987: 273), Reyes and Sansón (1991: 79), Ballesteros et al. (1992: 516), Pinedo et al. (1992: 36), Kristiansen et al. (1993: 95), Irvine and Johansen (1994: 42), Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 81), Guadalupe et al. (1995: 37), Rojas-González and Afonso-Carrillo (2000: 129, 2004: 138), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25), Haroun et al. (2003: 108), Montañés et al. (2003: 124), Sangil et al. (2003a: 94 103, b: 311, 2004: 89, 2005: 326), Afonso-Carrillo and Sobrino (2004: 149), John et al. (2004: 73), Muñoz et al. (2007: 107) and Afonso-Carrillo et al. (2009: 238).

  • Corallina elongata. Afonso-Carrillo (1980a: 7, b: 54), Delgado et al. (1984: 105), Haroun et al. (1984: 111), Jorge et al. (1984: 118), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 25), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (1992: 101), Hardisson et al. (1998: 945-950) and Tuya and Haroun (2006: 17).

Corallina granifera J. Ellis & Solander

Basionym: Corallina granifera J. Ellis & Solander 1786: 120. Type: whereabouts uncertain (Woelkerling and Nelson 2004: 56); illustrations: Ellis and Solander (1786, Table 21, Fig. c.C., p. 120). Typelocality: Mediterranean coasts of Africa (Lamouroux 1816: 288).

Current placement/name:

C. granifera J. Ellis & Solander but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. Ardissone (1883: 465) and Yendo (1905: 30) cited C. granifera as a synonym of Corallina virgata Zanardini but no revision of type material was made. The designation/localization of the type material and its study in a modern context is required.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Gain (1914: 22), Lemoine (1924: 130), Schmidt (1929b: 172, 1931: 65), Feldmann (1946: 421), Weisscher (1982: 31, 1983: 63) and Audiffred and Weisscher (1984: 20).

  • Corallina granifera. Chapman (1955: 801) and Audiffred and Prud’homme van Reine (1985: 38).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Price et al. (1986: 74) and González et al. (1986: 316).

  • Corallina granifera. Afonso-Carrillo (1980b: 54), Delgado et al. (1984: 105) and Price et al. (1986: 74).

  • Corallina granifera J. Ellis & Solander?. Ardré (1970: 228).

  • Jania granifera Decaisne. Vickers (1896: 306) and Price et al. (1986: 74).

  • MADEIRA: Lemoine (1924: 130), Børgesen (1929: 70), Schmidt (1931: 101), Seoane-Camba (1965: 110), Weisscher (1982: 31, 1983: 63), Audiffred and Weisscher (1984: 20, 33) and Audiffred and Prud’homme van Reine (1985: 38).

  • Corallina granifera J. Ellis & Solander?. Ardré (1970: 228).

  • Jania granifera Decaisne. Gain (1914: 7) and Neto et al. (2001: 403).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1986: 74).

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Weisscher (1982: 31) and Price et al. (1986: 74).

Corallina lobata J. V. Lamouroux

Basionym: Corallina lobata J. V. Lamouroux 1816: 286. Holotype: CN; illustrations: not found. Type locality: The Canaries (Lamouroux 1816: 286).

Current placement/name:

C. lobata J. V. Lamouroux. Examination of a fragment of the type material revealed stable characters at the genus level (Garbary and Johansen 1982: 212), but the status as a distinct species within the genus remains uncertain until comparative studies of relevant types are undertaken. Afonso-Carrillo (unpublished information) verified that the type material of C. lobata was not different from the actual concept of Haliptilon virgatum (Zanardini) Garbary & H. W. Johansen (for further comments see Price et al. 1992: 125). As C. lobata is an older name, it would have priority over C. virgata Zanardini (1840) (Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón 1999: 151-152). For more information, see Haliptilon virgatum entry.

Published records:
  • MADEIRA: Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 151).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 151).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Lamouroux (1816: 286), Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1983: 46, 1984: 26, 30), Price et al. (1986: 75), Reyes and Afonso-Carrillo (1993: 127), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 151).

  • Corallina lobata. Delgado et al. (1984: 105).

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 151).

Corallina mediterranea J. E. Areschoug

Basionym: Corallina mediterranea J. E. Areschoug 1852: 568. Type: Herb. Reg. Acad. Scientiarum Holm; illustrations: not found. Type locality: Mediterranean (Agardh 1852: 568).

Current placement/name:

C. mediterranea J. E. Areschoug but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. Ardré (1970: 226) and Solms-Laubach (1881 in Ardissone 1883: 464) mentioned that the criteria used to distinguish C. mediterranea and Corallina officinalis Linnaeus were unsatisfactory and that further research was needed before any decision to merge both species. The historical use of C. mediterranea or C. officinalis at Salvagens Islands (Madeira) and in the Canary Islands is discussed in Price et al. (1986: 74).

Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 81) redefined the C. mediterranea material recorded by Grunow (1868: 77) for the Archipelago of Madeira as C. elongata J. Ellis & Solander in the Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989) concept. This synonym was generalized by Price et al. (1986: 73, as C. elongata Johnst. Newton 1931: 313) and published as valid by Irvine and Johansen (1994: 41) but only based on the study of the lectotype of C. elongata.

For details on the relationship between C. mediterranea, C. elongata and C. officinalis, see C. mediterranea and C. officinalis entries.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Lemoine (1924: 130), Schmidt (1931: 65), Feldmann (1946: 419), Ardré et al. (1974: 178), Tittley et al. (1998: 468) and Neto (2000b: 485, 2001: 104).

  • MADEIRA: Grunow (1868: 77), Lemoine (1924: 130), Schmidt (1931: 101) and John et al. (2004: 73).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1986: 73).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Lemoine (1924: 130), Børgesen (1929: 68), Schmidt (1931: 101), Feldmann (1946: 407), Seoane-Camba (1965: 110), Kohlmeyer (1967: 143), Santos Guerra et al. (1970: 24), Acuña González (1972: 5), Santos Guerra (1972: 95), Perez-Cirera (1975: 19), Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1978: 232) and Price et al. (1986: 73).

  • Corallina mediterranea. Vickers (1896: 295), Sauvageau (1912: 210) and González (1977b: 100).

  • Corallina mediterranea L. Gil-Rodríguez (1980: 138).

Corallina microptera Montagne

Basionym: Corallina microptera Montagne 1846: 130. Type: M Bourgeau; PC (Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón 1999: 152); illustrations: not found. Typelocality: Orotava, Tenerife, the Canaries (Montagne 1846: 130).

Current placement/name:

C. microptera Montagne. Examination of a fragment of the type material revealed stable characters at the genus level (Garbary and Johansen 1982: 212), but the status as a distinct species within genus remains uncertain until comparative studies of relevant types are undertaken. According to Bornet (1892), C. microptera from the Canary Islands is just a small form of C. elongata (as C. mediterranea J. E. Areschoug, Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón 1999: 152). Revision of the type material revealed stable characters at the genus level (Garbary and Johansen 1982: 212). The study of type specimens in a modern context is required for specific diagnosis.

Published records:

  • AZORES: Corallina microptera. Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 152).

  • MADEIRA: Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 152).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Montagne (1846: 130).

Corallina millegrana Lamarck

Basionym: Corallina millegrana Lamarck 1815: 233. Holotype: PC 0028655 General Herbarium; illustrations: not found. Typelocality: Tenerife, the Canaries (Lamarck 1815: 233).

Current placement/name:

C. millegrana Lamarck. Examination of a fragment of the type material revealed stable characters at the genus level (Garbary and Johansen 1982: 212), but the status as a distinct species within genus remains uncertain until comparative studies of relevant types are done.

Published records:
  • CANARY ISLANDS: Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 152).

Corallina officinalis Linnaeus

Basionym: Corallina officinalis Linnaeus 1758: 805. Lectotype: LINN 1293. 9 (Irvine and Johansen 1994: 44); illustrations: Walker et al. (Walker et al. 2009, C. officinalis, Fig. 5a; Corallina compacta Crouan & Crouan (PC), Fig. 5b; Corallina nana Zanardini (MCVE), Fig. 5c; Corallina calvadosii J. V. Lamouroux (PC), Figs. 5 d–e, p. 296). Type locality: European Seas (Lamouroux 1816: 284).

Current placement/name:

C. officinalis Linnaeus according to Irvine and Johansen (1994: 44) and Walker et al. (2009: 295) based on the study of lectotype material. Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1983: 46) mentioned the presence of C. officinalis in the Canary Islands as doubtful. Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 81) studying the material collected by Piccone and housed at PAD Herbarium redefined C. officinalis from Azores (Piccone 1889: 209), Canaries (Piccone 1884: 42) and Madeira (Piccone 1884: 42) as C. elongata J. Ellis & Solander in the concept of Afonso-Carrillo (personal communication). However, no revision of the type material was made. Irvine and Johansen (1994: 44) provided a detailed account of C. officinalis in the British Isles while Womersley and Johansen (1996: 291) provided an account of the species in southern Australia.

For details on the relationship between C. officinalis, C. elongata and C. mediterranea J. E. Areschoug, see C. elongata and C. mediterranea entries.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Piccone (1889: 209), Gain (1914: 15, 22), Schmidt (1931: 65), Feldmann (1946: 419), Levring (1974: 69), Audiffred (1985: 174), Weisscher (1983: 64), Audiffred and Prud’homme van Reine (1985: 38), South and Tittley (1986: 42), Neto (1994: 26), Tittley and Neto (1994: 8, 2000: 20) and Tittley et al. (1998: 468).

  • Corallina officinalis. Schmidt (1929a: 331).

  • MADEIRA: Piccone (1884: 42–43), Barton (1897: 374), Gain (1914: 7), Schmidt (1931: 101), Levring (1974: 69), Weisscher (1983: 64), Audiffred and Weischer (1984: 33), Audiffred (1985: 174) and Neto et al. (2001: 403).

  • Corallina mediterranea Aresch = Corallina officinalis L. Audiffred and Weisscher (1984: 33).

  • Corallina officinalis. Augier (1985: 100).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1986: 75) and John et al. (2004: 73).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Price et al. (1986: 75), Viera-Rodríguez (1987: 242), Viera-Rodríguez et al. (1987: 273), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 195), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25) and John et al. (2004: 73).

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1986: 75).

Haliptilon

The generic concept of this genus is not consensual. For the relationship between Haliptilon and other Janieae genera, see Cheilosporum entry. According to Womersley and Johansen (1996: 296), Haliptilon distinguishes from other Janieae genera by possessing a thallus pinnate with compressed axial intergenicula without lobes, usually bearing two or more subterete branchlets, sometimes adventitiously; conceptacles in terminal branchlets, usually single and with apical pores; spore-producing conceptacles with 1-3 branchlets.

Haliptilon cubensis (Montagne ex Kützing) Garbary & H. W. Johansen

Basionym: Jania cubensis Montagne ex Kützing, 1849: 709–710. Type: Montagne Herbarium (Agardh 1852); illustrations: Garbary and Johansen (1982, Fig. 10, p. 216) as Haliptilon cubensis (Montagne ex Kützing) Garbary & H. W. Johansen. Typelocality: Cuba (Kützing 1849: 710).

Current placement/name:

H. cubensis (Montagne ex Kützing) Garbary & H. W. Johansen. Examination of a fragment of the type material revealed stable characters at the genus level (Garbary and Johansen 1982: 212), but the status as a distinct species within genus remains uncertain until comparative studies of relevant types are done. Following their suggestion to merge material of Cheilosporum and Haliptilon within the Jania genus (Kim et al. 2007, see Cheilosporum entry), these authors suggested the new combination J. cubensis (Montagne ex Kützing 1849, p. 709–10). According to Afonso-Carrillo (unpublished results), plants from the Canary Islands reported as Corallina cubensis (Montagne ex Kützing) Kützing or H. cubensis are not morphologically different from Haliptilon virgatum (Zanardini) Garbary & H. W. Johansen

Published records:

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Corallina cubensis. Delgado et al. (1984: 105) and Jorge et al. (1984: 118).

  • Corallina cubensis (Montagne) Kützing. Gil-Rodríguez and Afonso-Carrillo (1980: 36), Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1983: 30, 1984: 32) and Price et al. (1992: 125).

  • Haliptilon cubense (Montagne ex Kützing) Garbary & H. W. Johansen. Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25) and John et al. (2004: 86).

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Corallina cubensis Montagne ex Kützing. Askenasy (1896: 26) and Price et al. (1992: 125).

  • Jania cubensis Montagne ex Kützing. Price et al. (1992: 125).

Haliptilon purpuratum (Lamarck) Garbary & H. W. Johansen

Basionym: Corallina purpurata Lamarck 1815: 237. Type: PC; illustrations: not found. Type locality: Tenerife, the Canaries (Lamarck 1815: 237).

Current placement/name:

H. purpuratum (Lamarck) Garbary & H. W. Johansen. Examination of the thallus surface of a fragment of the type material revealed stable characters at the genus level (Garbary and Johansen 1982: 212), but the status as a distinct species within genus remains uncertain until comparative studies of relevant types are undertaken. Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 153) mentioned that according to the original description of C. purpurata and the variable morphology of Haliptilon virgatum (Zanardini) Garbary & H. W. Johansen, these two species are not distinct and a revision of both species based on examination of type material is recommended.

Published records:

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Haliptilon purpuratum (Lamarck) Garbary & H. W. Johansen. Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 153, 195).

Haliptilon squamatum (Linnaeus) Johansen, L. Irvine & Webster

Basionym: Corallina squamata Linnaeus 1758: 806. Lectotype: Ellis’s illustrations designated by Irvine and Johansen (1994: 50); illustrations: Ellis (1755, pl. 24, Fig. c.C, p. 63). Type locality: European Seas (Lamouroux 1816: 287).

Current placement/name:

Haliptilon squamatum (Linnaeus) Johansen, L. Irvine & Webster according to Johansen et al. (1973: 212) and Irvine and Johansen (1994: 49) based on the study of lectotype material. Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 81) examining the material collected by Piccone from Azores (1889), the Canaries (1884) and Madeira (Grunow 1868) housed at PAD Herbarium considered it as H. virgatum (Zanardini) Garbary & H. W. Johansen, following the concept of Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 25). Nevertheless, the type material was not observed. The presence of H. squamatum in the Archipelagos of Madeira and the Canaries is dubious and needs confirmation (Afonso-Carrillo et al. 1983: 46; Neto et al. 2001: 412). Kim et al. (2007: 1317) based on molecular and reproductive features proposed the new combination Jania squamata (Linnaeus) J. H. Kim, Guiry & H.-G. Choi.

Published records:

  • AZORES: Corallina squamata J. Ellis & Solander. Schmidt (1929b: 171, 1931: 65) and Feldmann (1946: 419).

  • Haliptylon squamatum. Neto (1994: 26).

  • Haliptilon squamatum (Linnaeus) H.W. Johansen., L.M. Irvine & A.M. Webster. South and Tittley (1986: 42) and Tittley and Neto (1994: 9, 2005: 250).

  • MADEIRA: Corallina squamata. Grunow (1868: 78).

  • Corallina squamata J. Ellis & Solander. Grunow (1868: 78) and Schmidt (1929b: 171, 1931: 101).

  • Haliptilon squamatum (Linnaeus) H. W. Johansen, L.M. Irvine & A.M. Webster. John et al. (2004: 86).

  • CANARY ISLANDS:1 Haliptilon squamatum (Linnaeus) H. W. Johansen, L. M. Irvine & A. M. Webster. Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1983: 46), Price et al. (1992: 125), Irvine and Johansen (1994: 49), Irvine and Johansen (1994: 49), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 195), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25) and John et al. (2004: 86).

Haliptilon virgatum (Zanardini) Garbary & H. W. Johansen

Basionym: Corallina virgata Zanardini 1844: 1025. Type: MCVE (Stafleu and Cowan 1988: 516); illustrations: not found. Typelocality: Adriatic Sea (Zanardini 1844: 1025).

Current placement/name:

H. virgatum (Zanardini) Garbary & H. W. Johansen. Examination of a fragment of the type material revealed stable characters at the genus level (Garbary and Johansen 1982: 212), but the status as a distinct species within genus remains uncertain until comparative studies of relevant types are done. Kim et al. (2007) based on molecular and reproductive features proposed to merge Haliptilon within Jania genus (see Cheilosporum entry) but did not suggest a new combination for H. virgatum.

For the relationship between H. virgatum and Corallina lobata J. V. Lamouroux, see C. lobata entry.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Piccone (1889: 210) and Neto and Tittley (1995: 490).

  • Haliptylon virgatum (Zanardini) Garbary & H. W. Johansen. South and Tittley (1986: 42), Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 81), Tittley and Neto (1994: 9), Tittley et al. (1998: 468) and Wallenstein and Neto (2006: 199).

  • MADEIRA: Haliptilon virgatum (Zanardini) Garbary & H. W. Johansen. Audiffred and Prud’homme van Reine (1985: 41) and John et al. (2004: 87).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1992: 125).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Piccone (1889: 210) and Price et al. (1992: 125).

  • Haliptilon virgata (Zanardini) Garbary & H. W. Johansen. Viera-Rodríguez and Wildpret de la Torre (1986: 217), Price et al. (1992: 125), Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 94), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 195), Rojas-González and Afonso-Carrillo (2002b: 100), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25) and Muñoz et al. (2007: 107).

  • Haliptilon virgatum. Gil-Rodríguez et al. (1992: 112) and Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 81).

  • Haliptilon virgata. Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 25).

  • Haliptilon virgatum (Zanardini) Garbary & H. W. Johansen. Elejabeitia et al. (1992: 8), Pinedo et al. (1992: 39), Guadalupe et al. (1995: 37), Haroun et al. (2003: 108), Montañés et al. (2003: 124), Sangil et al. (2003a: 103, b, 2004: 89, 311, 2005: 326) and John et al. (2004 : 87).

Jania

The generic concept of this genus is not consensual. For the relationship between Jania and other Janieae genera, see Cheilosporum entry. According to Womersley and Johansen (1996: 296), Jania distinguishes from other Janieae genera by possessing a dichotomous thallus with terete or compressed intergenicula bearing axial conceptacles.

Jania adhaerens J. V. Lamouroux

Basionym: Jania adhaerens J. V. Lamouroux 1816: 270. Holotype: CN (Johansen 1971: 247; Cribb 1983); illustrations: not found. Typelocality: Mediterranean (Lamouroux 1816: 270).

Current placement/name:

J. adhaerens J. V. Lamouroux but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context.

Published records:
  • AZORES: South and Tittley (1986: 42), Prud’homme van Reine (1988: 179), Neto (1994: 26, 2001: 104), Tittley and Neto (1994: 9) and Tittley et al. (1998: 468).

  • MADEIRA: John et al. (2004: 93).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1992: 135), Kristiansen et al. (1993: 95) and John et al. (2004: 93).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Afonso-Carrillo (1980b: 55), Gil-Rodríguez and Afonso-Carrillo (1980: 36), Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1984: 30), González et al. (1986: 319), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 26, 1999: 196), Reyes and Sansón (1991: 79), Ballesteros et al. (1992: 520), Pinedo et al. (1992: 40), Price et al. (1992: 135), Ballesteros (1993: 21), Kristiansen et al. (1993: 95), Guadalupe et al. (1995: 37), Reyes et al. (2000: 140), Haroun et al. (2002: 146, 2003: 110), Rojas-González and Afonso-Carrillo (2002b: 102), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25), Montañés et al. (2003: 124), Sangil et al. (2003a: 103, b: 311), John et al. (2004: 93), Sangil et al. (2004: 89, 2005: 326) and Muñoz et al. (2007: 107).

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Otero-Schmitt and Sanjuan (1992: 382), Price et al. (1992: 135) and Otero-Schmitt (1993: 47).

Jania capillacea Harvey

Basionym: Jania capillacea Harvey 1853: 84–85. Holotype: TCD (Toumey 70; Dawson 1953: 116; Cribb 1983); illustrations: not found. Type locality: Honda Bay, Florida, USA (Silva et al. 1996: 241).

Current placement/name:

J. capillacea Harvey but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. Similarities between this species and J. adhaerens J. V. Lamouroux are discussed in Cribb (1983) and Schneider and Searles (1991). Further comments on the relation between J. capillacea and Jania pumila J. V. Lamouroux for the Canary Islands in J. pumila entry.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Neto (2001: 104) and Wellenstein and Neto (2006: 1999).

  • MADEIRA: John et al. (2004: 93).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1992: 135) and John et al. (2004: 93).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 26, 1999: 196), Reyes and Sansón (1991: 79), Pinedo et al. (1992: 40), Price et al. (1992: 135), Ballesteros (1993: 22), Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 94), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25), Haroun et al. (2003: 110), Sangil et al. (2003a: 103, b: 311) and John et al. (2004: 93).

  • Jania capillacea J. V. Lamouroux. Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1983: 46, 1984: 30) and Price et al. (1992: 135).

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Otero-Schmitt and Sanjuan (1992: 382), Price et al. (1992: 135) and Otero-Schmitt (1993: 51).

Jania crassa J. V. Lamouroux

Basionym: Jania crassa J. V. Lamouroux 1821: 23. Holotype: CN Lamouroux Herbarium under Jania in folder c8-f74 (Woelkerling and Nelson 2004: 53); illustrations: Lamouroux (1821, pl. 69, Figs. 9–10, p. 23) and Johansen (1971, Fig. 10, p. 244) as J. crassa; Johansen and Womersley (1994, Fig. 37, p. 622) as Jania verrucosa J. V. Lamouroux; see comments. Type locality: Dusky Sound, South Island, New Zealand (Lamouroux 1821: 23).

Current placement/name:

J. verrucosa J. V. Lamouroux but status and disposition uncertain as the type of J. verrucosa was not studied in a modern context. Johansen and Womersley (1994: 617) and Womersley and Johansen (1996: 305, 307) considered J. crassa as a heterotypic synonym of J. verrucosa stating that they are almost “certainly conspecific at least in southern Australia”. This conclusion was only based on the study of the holotype of J. crassa. However, according to Woelkerling and Nelson (2004: 65), the proposed conspecifity needs to be confirmed through a comparative study of both types.

Published records:
  • AZORES: South and Tittley (1986: 43), Neto (1994: 26) and Tittley and Neto (1994: 9).

  • Jania crassa. Prud’homme van Reine (1988: 179), Stengenga et al. (1997: 585) and Neto (2000a: 140, b: 490).

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Otero-Schmitt and Sanjuan (1992: 384) and Price et al. (1992: 136).

Jania intermedia (Kützing) P. C. Silva

Basionym: Corallina intermedia Kützing 1858: 37–38, 42. Type: not found: illustrations: Kützing (1858, pl. 79, Fig. I, p. 36–38; pl. 86, Fig. IV, p. 42). Typelocality: Cape of Good Hope, South Africa (Silva et al. 1996: 242).

Current placement/name:

J. intermedia (Kützing) P. C. Silva but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. Silva et al. (1996: 242) mentioned that the correct combination is J. intermedia and not Jania intermedia Kützing which was only a bibliographic reference and not the name of the basionym. Neto et al. (2001: 412.) studying Madeira specimens cited it as doubtful record mentioning that “it might be a variety of J. rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux”. According to Woelkerling and Nelson (2004: 57), this name should be considered a nomen nudum as there are no valid diagnosis descriptions.

Published records:

  • MADEIRA: Corallina intermedia Grunow. Neto et al. (2001: 412).

Jania longifurca Zanardini

Basionym: Janialongifurca Zanardini 1844: 1025. Type: probably in MCVE Zanardini’s collections; illustrations: not found. Type locality: Dalmatia, Italy (Zanardini 1844: 1025).

Current placement/name:

J. longifurca Zanardini but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. Sansón et al. (1991: 531) mentioned that this species is poorly known in the Canary Islands and needs further studies. The designation/localization of the type material and its study in a modern context is required.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Feldmann (1946: 421), South and Tittley (1986: 43), Neto (1994: 26), Tittley et al. (1998: 468) and Neto (2000a: 140, b: 490, 2001: 105).

  • MADEIRA: Levring (1974: 70), Sansón et al. (1991: 530) and Neto et al. (2001: 404).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Sansón et al. (1991: 530), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 196), Haroun et al. (2002: 146) and Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25).

Jania micrarthrodia J. V. Lamouroux

Basionym: Jania micrarthrodia J. V. Lamouroux 1816: 271. Holotype: CN Lamouroux Herbarium; illustrations: Lamouroux (1816, pl. 9, Fig. 5a; pl. 69, Figs. 7–8, p. 271); Johansen and Womersley (1994, Figs. 32–36, p. 622). Typelocality: Australasia (Lamouroux 1816: 271).

Current placement/name:

J. micrarthrodia J. V. Lamouroux according to Johansen and Womersley (1994: 611–613) based on the study of type material. Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 212) mentioned that the material of J. micrarthrodia for the Canaries could not be located.

Published records:
  • CANARY ISLANDS: Price et al. (1992: 136) and Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 196).

Jania natalensis Harvey

Basionym: Jania natalensis Harvey 1849: 107. Type: TCD (Johansen 1971: 247); illustrations: not found. Type locality: Port Natal, South Africa (Johansen 1971: 247).

Current placement/name:

Janiaverrucosa J. V. Lamouroux but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. Johansen and Womersley (1994: 616) merged J. natalensis in synonymy with J. verrucosa but no revision of the type material was made. Agardh (1870: 363) cited J. natalensis as doubtful to the Azores (Santa Maria).

Published records:

  • AZORES: Schmidt (1929b: 172, 1931: 66).

  • Corallina natalensis Kützing. Neto (2000b: 485).

  • Jania natalensis?. Agardh (1870: 363) and Piccone (1889: 214).

  • Jania? Natalensis Harvey. Gain (1914: 22).

Jania pumila J. V. Lamouroux

Basionym: Jania pumila J. V. Lamouroux 1816: 269. Holotype: CN Lamouroux Herbarium; illustrations: Lamouroux (1816, pl. 9, Fig. 2, p. 269). Type locality: Red Sea and Western Indies (Lamouroux 1816: 269).

Current placement/name:

J. pumila J. V. Lamouroux but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. The holotype specimen of J. pumila housed in Lamouroux’s Herbarium in Caen is in depauperate and/or sterile conditions being difficult to interpret (Johansen and Womersley 1994: 610; Abbott 1999: 189). Villena-Balsa et al. (1987: 20) revising material from the Canary Islands identified it provisionally as J. pumila. They mentioned that the material could belong to other species also characterized by reduced-size plants and not correctly described e.g. Jania gibbosa J. V. Lamouroux, J. pygmea J. V. Lamouroux, J. compressa J. V. Lamouroux and J. capillacea Harvey.

Published records:
  • MADEIRA: Levring (1974: 70), González (1978: 48) and Neto et al. (2001: 404).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1992: 136) and John et al. (2004: 93).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Price et al. (1992: 136), Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1978: 232, 1983: 30, 1984: 30), González (1978: 48), Gil-Rodríguez and Afonso-Carrillo (1980: 36), Pinedo et al. (1992: 40), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 196), Haroun et al. (2003: 112), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25), Sangil et al. (2003a: 103, 2005: 326) and John et al. (2004: 93).

  • Jania pumila. Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 25) and Price et al. (1992: 136).

Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamoroux var. corniculata (Linnaeus) Yendo

Basionym: Corallina corniculata Linnaeus 1758: 806. Lectotype: LINN 1293.19 (Irvine and Johansen 1994: 56); illustrations: not found. Type locality: European Ocean (Irvine and Johansen 1994: 56).

Current placement/name:

Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamoroux var. corniculata (Linnaeus) Yendo but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. Irvine and Johansen (1994: 56) in their revision of the British Isles material considered the name J. rubens var. corniculata (Linnaeus) Yendo as valid but without checking the type material. Recently, John et al. (2004: 93) considered J. corniculata (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux as a synonym of Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux but did not provide any taxonomic comments. In their integrative taxonomic approach including phylogeny reconstructions based on the cox1 and 18S rRNA genes in addition to a comparative morphological assessment study Walker et al. (2009) observed that J. rubens var. rubens and J. rubens var. corniculata clustered together in both phylogenies suggesting that for those genes there was no genetic basis for the morphological variation. These conclusions however were not based on type material observations.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Gain (1914: 22), Tittley et al. (1998: 468) and Neto (2000b: 485, 2001: 105).

  • Janiacorniculata J. V. Lamouroux. Piccone (1889: 213).

  • Jania corniculata (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. South and Tittley (1986: 42).

  • Jania cf. corniculata (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux. Neto (1994: 26) and Tittley and Neto (1994: 9).

  • Jania rubens J. V. Lamouroux var. corniculata (Linnaeus) Yendo. Schmidt (1931: 66).

  • MADEIRA: Jania cf. corniculata. Neto et al. (2001: 404).

  • Jania corniculata (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Audiffred and Prud’homme van Reine (1985: 43).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Jania cf. corniculata. John et al. (2004: 93).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Jania corniculata (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Gil-Rodríguez and Afonso-Carrillo (1980: 36), Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1983: 30, 1984: 30) and Price et al. (1992: 135).

  • Jania corniculata. Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 26).

  • Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux var. corniculata (Linnaeus) Yendo. Price et al. (1992: 135) and Irvine and Johansen (1994: 57).

Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamoroux var. rubens

Basionym: Corallina rubens Linnaeus 1758: 806. Lectotype: UPS Herb. Burser vol. XX, 72; designated by Irvine and Johansen (1994: 56); illustrations: Lamoroux (1816, pl. 9, figs 6-7, p. 272) as Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Type locality: European Ocean (Linnaeus 1758: 806).

Current placement/name:

J. rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamoroux var. rubens, a conclusion of Irvine and Johansen (1994: 56) after studying the lectotype in a modern context. Price et al. (1992: 136) suggested that J. rubens and Corallina rubens J. Ellis & Solander in González (1977a: 26) are synonyms. Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 94) confirmed the diagnosis of the J. rubens material from Cape Verde Islands collected by Piccone (1886) and housed at PAD and W Herbarium but recognized that material was from Tenerife (the Canaries) and not from Cape Verde Islands. They followed Taylor’s (1960) concept and did not review the type material.

Published records:
  • AZORES: Gain (1914: 15, 22) and Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 94).

  • Jania rubens. Schmidt (1929a: 331).

  • Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Feldmann (1946: 417), Castro and Viegas (1983: 20, 1987: 63), Weisscher (1983: 70), South and Tittley (1986: 43), Tittley and Neto (1994: 9), Neto (2000a: 140, 2000b: 490-491), Toste et al. (2003: 1270) and Wallenstein and Neto (2006: 199).

  • Jania rubens J. V. Lamouroux. Schmidt (1931: 66).

  • Jania rubens. Agardh (1870: 363), Palminha (1957: 66), Neto (1994: 26, 2000b: 490) and Neto and Tittley (1995: 489).

  • Jania rubens (Linnaeus) Areschoug. Lemoine (1924: 130).

  • Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux var. rubens. Audiffred and Prud’homme van Reine (1985: 43) and Irvine and Johansen (1994: 55).

  • MADEIRA: Corallina rubens J. V. Lamouroux. Gain (1914: 10) and John et al. (2004: 93).

  • Jania rubens J. V. Lamouroux. Piccone (1884: 10), Gain (1914: 9) and Schmidt (1931: 101).

  • Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Grunow (1868: 78) and Levring (1974: 70).

  • Jania rubens. Johnston (1969: 215), Augier (1985: 100) and Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1989: 26).

  • Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. E. Areschoug. Lemoine (1924: 130).

  • SALVAGE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1992: 136) and John et al. (2004: 93).

  • CANARY ISLANDS: Corallina (Jania) rubens Linnaeus. Askenasy (1896: 26) and Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 94).

  • Jania rubens. Johnston (1969: 215), González (1977b: 100), Delgado et al. (1984: 106), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (1992: 109) and Price et al. (1992: 136).

  • Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Ardré (1970: 229), Santos Guerra et al. (1970: 24), Cordeiro-Marino (1978: 50), González (1978: 48), Afonso-Carrillo et al. (1978: 232, 1984: 30), Afonso-Carrillo and Gil-Rodríguez (1980: 165), Gil-Rodríguez and Afonso-Carrillo (1980: 36), López Hernández and Gil-Rodríguez (1981: 156), Weisscher (1983: 70), González et al. (1986: 319), Viera-Rodríguez and Wildpret de la Torre (1986: 216), Reyes and Sansón (1991: 79), Pinedo et al. (1992: 40), Medina and Haroun (1993: 110), Kristiansen et al. (1993: 95), Guadalupe et al. (1995: 37), Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón (1999: 196), Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2003: 25), Rojas-González and Afonso-Carrillo (2002a: 33), Haroun et al. (2003: 112), Montañés et al. (2003: 124), Sangil et al. (2003a: 103), John et al. (2004: 93), Rojas-González and Afonso-Carrillo (2004: 138) and Muñoz et al. (2007: 107).

  • Jania rubens J. V. Lamouroux. Vickers (1896: 306), Schmidt (1931: 101 and Price et al. (1992: 136).

  • Jania rubens (Linnaeus). Piccone (1884: 42, 56) and Acuña González (1972: 5).

  • Jania rubens. Price et al. (1992: 136).

  • Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux var. rubens. Irvine and Johansen (1994: 55).

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Corallina (Jania) rubens Linneaus. Price et al. (1992: 136).

  • Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Piccone (1886: 66), Price et al. (1992: 136) and Prud’homme van Reine et al. (1994: 94).

  • Jania rubens J. V. Lamouroux. Schmidt (1931: 101).

  • Jania cf. rubens (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux. Otero-Schmitt and Sanjuan (1992: 382).

Jania tenella (Kützing) Grunow

Basionym: Corallina tenella Kützing 1858: 41. Holotype: L (Dawson 1953: 121); illustrations: Kützing (1858, pl. 85, fig. II, p. 41). Type locality: Naples, Italy (Silva et al. 1996: 244).

Current placement/name:

J. tenella (Kützing) Grunow but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context.

Published records:

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Corallina (Jania) tenella Kützing. Price et al. (1992: 136).

Jania verrucosa J. V. Lamouroux

Basionym: Janiaverrucosa J. V. Lamouroux 1816: 270. Holotype: CN Lamouroux Herbarium (Womersley and Johansen 1996: 305); illustrations: Lamouroux (1816, pl. 9, Fig. 4 a.B, p. 270). Typelocality: North America (Lamouroux 1816: 270).

Current placement/name:

J. verrucosa J. V. Lamouroux but status and disposition uncertain as the type was not studied in a modern context. For the relationship between J.verrucosa, J. natalensis and J. cryptarthrodia, see J. natalensis and J. cryptarthrodia entries.

Published records:

  • AZORES: Jania verrucosa. Neto (2000b: 491, 2001:105).

  • CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Price et al. (1992: 136).

Discussion

From the 31 names of species and infraspecific taxa of geniculate Corallinales recorded from the Macaronesian region, four are based on type material collected from localities within this region, while the rest (87%) are based on types from localities elsewhere (Table 1). All species are validly published (ICBN, Art. 6.2, 29.1, 42.3 and 60). The correct application of these names to species and specific taxa, however, is linked to an understanding of the type material and to the provisions of the ICBN (McNeill et al. 2006).

For Haliptilon cubensis, H. virgatum and the four names based on Macaronesian collections (Corallina lobata, C. microptera, C. millegrana and Haliptilon purpurata), only a fragment of the holotype material was studied. The generic placement of the taxa was confirmed by ultrastructural investigations but the status of the species could not be determined (Garbary and Johansen 1982). As a result, published information does not include detailed specific morphological and anatomical accounts, and its nomenclature lacks the foundations essential for stability. Therefore, although those taxa are currently treated as distinct species by various authors, this treatment requires substantiation through morphological, anatomical and ultrastructural detailed studies of relevant type material.

From the list compiled in the present work, 15 taxa have not been studied in a modern context. Jania intermedia is a nomen nudum (ICBN, Art. 1) and therefore nomenclaturally illegitimate. The remaining 14 taxa, although listed as distinct species in various publications, require re-assessment through further studies of relevant type material. The same situation happens with the proposed heterotypic synonyms. An example is the synonymy of Corallina mediterranea with C. elongata published by Irvine and Johansen (1994: 41). The segregating characters defined by these authors for C. elongata, related to reproductive and vegetative morphology, cannot be contrasted with the available original description of C. mediterranea from Areschoug (1852: 568–569). Also, the presence in the main axes of intergenicula as long as wide, described by Walker et al. (2009: 295–296) as distinguishing feature for C. elongata, does not agree with the description of C. mediterranea. The occurrence of most of these taxa in Macaronesia has yet to be verified as most records represent occasional findings from one single location.

Only ten types of Corallinales occurring in Macaronesia have been studied in a modern context. From these, two (Jania crassa and Amphiroa verruculosa) are considered heterotypic synonyms of other taxa. The heterotypic synonymy of Jania crassa with Jania verrucosa (Johansen and Womersley 1994), however, requires further studies comparing both types. The remaining eight species are considered to be distinct taxa. Their diagnosing characters were emended based on, respectively, vegetative and reproductive anatomy in the case of Amphiroa (Norris and Johansen 1981: 5–6), vegetative and reproductive morphology in Corallina (Walker et al. 2009: 295; Table 4, p. 296) and morphological and anatomical vegetative characters in Jania (Johansen and Womersley 1994: 606). The confirmation of these species in the Macaronesia requires the study of their voucher specimens in light of these new concepts.

To summarize, only 8 of the 31 species and infraspecific taxa of geniculate Corallinales listed for Macaronesia have been confirmed to represent distinct species. Three others have been found to be heterotypic synonyms of other taxa and one (Jania intermedia) is nomenclaturally illegitimate. There remains 19 taxa that have yet to be fully reassessed through detailed studies encompassing specific morphological, anatomical and ultrastructural investigations, preferably complemented with molecular studies. This task has many difficulties, starting with the fact that for three species (Corallina deshayesii, C. granifera and C. intermedia) the type collection whereabouts are uncertain. However, this kind of taxonomic work may confirm the molecular conclusions of Kim et al. (2007) suggesting that the genera Cheilosporum, Haliptilon and Jania (tribe Janieae) should be merged into a single genus Jania recognized by the generic characters listed by Johansen and Silva (1978: 413, Table 1, p. 414).

Conclusion

The present catalog and its analysis represent initial steps in creating a reliable database on the species diversity of geniculate Corallinales in the Macaronesian region. Although 31 names of geniculate Corallinales have been recorded for this region, the actual number of species and genera present is uncertain and will continue to remain so until detailed monographic studies are undertaken. How many of the names previously used for the Macaronesian region taxa can correctly be applied to specimens for this region also remains uncertain as does the number of species present, but so far undetected. An accurate figure of the actual diversity for the Macaronesian geniculate corallines requires extensive work involving new collections, the detailed study of fresh material, historical collections and type material, complemented, if possible, with molecular evaluations.

Notes

Declarations

Acknowledgments

We thank Drs. Willem F. Prud’homme van Reine (National Herbarium Nederland-L) and Bruno de Reviers (Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle-PC) who provided specialized old literature and/or type material information, Ian Tittley (Natural History Museum), José M. N. Azevedo and Gustavo Martins for the English revision of the manuscript, Nuno Álvaro for the study area map, and to Dr. Inka Bartsch and an anonymous reviewer for their useful comments and suggestions. This work was partly supported by the Programme AlBan, the European Union Programme of High Level Scholarships for Latin America (through scholarship E05D060221MX) and “Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología” doctoral scholarship 176162, the UNAMUNO Programme of PhD Scholarships for Europe, and “Centro de Investigação de Recursos Naturais”, University of the Azores.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
CIIMAR (Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental)
(2)
Grupo de Biología Marinha, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Açores
(3)
Programa de Investigación en Botánica Marina, Departamento de Biología Marina, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur
(4)
Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Universidad de La Laguna

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