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Table 4 Comparative table of spicular micrometries, distribution and depth for the species of Vulcanella

From: Seven new species of sponges (Porifera) from deep-sea coral mounds at Campos Basin (SW Atlantic)

  Oxeas (or derivates) Triaenes Calthrops Microxeas Mt, metaster
Sp, spiraster
St, streptaster
Pl, plesiaster
Distribution/depth (m)
V. aberrans (Maldonado and Uriz, 1996) I. 1500–3115/23–70
II. 3500–6000/9–20
Or–Pla = r: 565–1125/9–15; c: 150–350/7–15   I: 150–315/3–7
II: 65–140/2–2.5
Mt: 18–25
Sp: 6–21
W Mediterranean/70–120
Vulcanella cf. aberrans sensu Cárdenas and Rapp (2012) I. Up to 5000/3–6.3–14
II. 1921–2789–3473/21–43.6–70
Or = r: 152–892–1315/23–37.6–62
c: 183–392.9–566 (n = 15)
Di = r: 152–892–1315/23–37.6–62
c: 70–99–129 + 72–135.0–194 (n = 12)
  I: 317–397.8–520/5–6–8
II. 181–239.2–245/3–3.2–4
Mt: 14–25.0–39
Stb: 14–25.0–39
Norway/320
III. 67–116.2–166/2
V. acanthoxea (Tanita and Hoshino, 1989) I. 1550–5000/33–120
II. >5000/5
III. 300–440/10–23 (achantoxeas)
  550–990/70–110 (r = 150) 95–190/2–6 Mt: <25
Sp: <20
Japan/300
V. bifacialis (Wilson, 1925) I. 2500–4500/60–90
II. 1500–12,000/10–20
r: 250–350/50–70
cl: 500–1110/50–80
  250/4 Mt: 24
Sp: 16–20
St: 16–40
Pl I: 25
Pl II: 32
Philippines/n.r.
V. cribrifera (Sollas 1888) I. 3035/67
II. >7500/32
Strongyles: 357/28
Or = r: 1000/40
cl: 250/32
286–636/39.5–80 110 Mt: 11.8 (rays)
Sp: 16–20
Cape Verde/186–238
V. cribriporosa (Lebwohl, 1914) I. 1900–3300/40–67
II. Up to 5000/7–10
Pl = r: 480–760/35–50/
cl: 150–340
Or = r: 180–540/22–55/cl: 210–590/22–55
Chelotrops: r: 250–690/38–85/
cl: cl: 240–690/38–85
100–190/4–6 Mt: 21–38
Sp: 16–20
Japan/n.r.
V. doederleini (Thiele, 1898) I. 1750–2500/65
II. 4000/15
Present 300–450/65 I. 270/12
II. 70–90
Sp Japan/n.r.
V. gracilis (Sollas 1888) I. 3800/100
II. 5600/15
  830/64 350/11.5 Mt: 12 (rays)
Sp: 15
Cape Verde/186–238
V. horrida (Schmidt, 1870) sensu Maldonado (2002) I. >3000/35
II. >5000/142
  400–1100/40–100 I: 200–500/8–13
II: 100–180/3–4.5
Sp: 12–18 N Atlantic, Florida and Azores/60–2500
V. netheides (Lebwohl, 1914) I. 750–3500/18–150
II (tylostyles). 550–2550/35–170
III (strongyles, subtylotes). 2000–2600/100
IV. 4000–7000/12–13
Pl: r: 590–795/30–52; cl: 90–220
Orc: r: generally 40–140/40–115; cl: 240–840/30–110
  60–405/2.5–18 Mt: 19–34
Sp: 14–23
Japan/n.r.
V. orthotriaena (Lévi and Lévi, 1983) 2400–3600/12–80 Or–Di (almost calthrops) = r: 900–1200/45–50; cl: 500–700/40–50
(rare dichotriaenes of the same dimensions)
  270–400/5–8 St: 15–20(rays)/45 New Caledonia/360–365
Sp: no measures  
V. osculanigera (Dickinson, 1945) I. 2100/75
II. 800/2
III. 375/10
  410/95   Asters: 15 Mexico/13
V. porosa (Lebwohl, 1914) I. 800–3800/30–125
II. 12,000/16
Or = cl: 300–850
Pl = r: 500–1100/30–50; cl: 90–260/70–75
  100–405/3–14 Mt: 11–22 Japan/n.r.
V. theneides (Burton, 1959) I. 6000–8000/40–56 Or = r = c: 480–800/32–50    St: 22–50 Indic Oc./878
V. tricornis (Wilson, 1904) I. 2500–5000/85–135
II. up to 25,000
III. 3000–5000/12
  1000/700 I: 400–500/8–16
II: 120
Mt: 20
Sp I: 20
Sp II: 24–26
Central Atlantic/99
  1. Values are expressed in µm, as minimum − mean − maximum length/width value whenever available. Data are from original descriptions, unless stated otherwise
  2. n.r. not reported, Pl plagiotriaene, Or orthotriaene, Di dicotriaene, r rhabdome, cl clade, c cladome
  3. aAlso pseudocalthrops, which seems to be malformations
  4. bAll intermediates exist between spirasters, metasters, and plesiasters
  5. cSeems to be calthrops